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INVENTORY OF FEDERAL RESEARCH ON ILLEGAL DRUGS AND RELATED ISSUES

Prepared For The Senate Special Committee On Illegal Drugs

Diane LeducNancy 
Miller Chenier
Political and Social Affairs Division
 
Sonya Norris
Science and Technology Division

31 October 2001

LIBRARY OF PARLIAMENT


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ANALYSIS OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT RESPONSES

A. Background
B. Federal Responses
C. Organization of Responses
D. Observations Derived from Responses
    1. Establishment of Central, Ongoing Registry
    2. Collection of Documentation
    3. Interpretation of the Term “Research”
    4. Distribution among Disciplines
    5. Assessment of Research Priorities and Funding

LETTER AND ANNEXED GUIDE

FEDERAL INVENTORY

SECTION I: RESEARCH AGENCIES

SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES RESEARCH COUNCIL OF CANADA (SSHRC)

CANADIAN INSTITUTES OF HEALTH RESEARCH (CIHR)

FEDERAL INVENTORY

SECTION II: DEPARTMENTS/AGENCIES

HEALTH CANADA

JUSTICE CANADA

CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA


FEDERAL INVENTORY

SECTION III: FEDERAL/PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL COMMITTEES

FEDERAL/PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON POPULATION HEALTH (ACPH)


ANALYSIS OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT RESPONSES 

   A.  Background 

                        In the fall of 2000, the Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs began its public hearings into Canada's anti-drug legislation and policies.  At the same time, the Committee initiated a programme of research to inform its study.  This particular inventory of illegal drug research funded by federal and provincial governments comprises one of several research projects undertaken by the Parliamentary Research Branch on behalf of the Senate Committee.

                        On January 24, 2001, letters were mailed to federal, provincial and territorial departments and agencies with involvement in the area of illegal drugs.  A letter and detailed appendix were designed to elicit information about research over the period from 1995 to 2000 on illicit drugs.  (See attached letter and annexed guide).

                        The goal was to get a better understanding of the nature and extent of current government-funded research on illegal drugs and related issues in Canada.  The letter requested information about empirical research funded by departments or agencies within the last five years.  The letter provided several parameters to identify the research.  It asked about: 

·        socio-historical, anthropological, criminological, geopolitical, economical, medical, psychological and pharmacological aspects;

·        laboratory experiments, clinical trials, case studies, population surveys, community observations, cost analyses, outcome evaluations, historical assessments as well as literature reviews;

·        origins of the government-funded research (for example, was the research being carried out by in-house departmental or agency specialists, by independent consultants, by university researchers, or in partnership with community-based organisations);

·        particular illegal substances such as cannabis, heroin, cocaine, etc. under study and implications for certain groups including Aboriginal peoples, street youth, injection drug users, etc.


 B.  Federal Responses 

                        The response by federal departments and agencies to the request for information and documentation was generally positive.  This volume of the inventory focuses on federal responses with information on provincial and territorial responses provided in a separate volume.  Letters were sent to ten federal departments and affiliated agencies as well as to federal research agencies.  These included:  Health Canada, Justice Canada, Law Commission of Canada, Solicitor General Canada, Correctional Service Canada, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council. 

                        Of the departments, affiliated agencies and research agencies who received letters, all responded in some form.  Most responded by an initial telephone call or letter to confirm receipt of the request and to commit to the delivery of the requested information.  The majority designated individual contact people to coordinate the collection of information and documentation.  In some cases, such as Solicitor General Canada and the Law Commission of Canada, the contact person moved to another organization before fulfilling the request.  Some like the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council responded by telephone in order to obtain an e-mail address for electronic delivery of lists of research projects.  A few organizations including the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police indicated that they did not have the organizational capacity to respond to the request with documentation.  Still others such as the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council specified that they did not have any documentation pertaining to such research. 

                        Although the letter specifically focussed attention on illegal drugs and related issues, many respondents included reference to substances that are legal but subject to misuse such as alcohol and tobacco.  Other respondents asked particularly about whether research on gambling would be useful.

                        At final count, the federal inventory has over 130 entries related to individual grants from research funding bodies and separate documents from departments and agencies.  The funding bodies account for over 50 entries followed by Health Canada and Correctional Service Canada, each with close to 40 entries.  

    
C.  Organization of Responses 

                        The inventory of federal departments and agencies is organized in a way that enables the English and the French documents to be viewed in a parallel way.  The research funding agencies are the first section (Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council) and the departments are the second section with corresponding agencies if relevant (Health Canada, Justice Canada, Solicitor General Canada with Correctional Services Canada).  Both this volume on federal responses and the companion volume on provincial and territorial responses contain a section on federal/ provincial/territorial documents.

                        To facilitate organization and analysis of the documentation, we developed a template with various headings – name of organization, bibliographic data, summary, type of study, thematic area, drug references, and additional information.  The template for organizing each entry was developed to provide the reader with a uniform format that allows dissimilar research entries to be presented in a comparable way.  Thus, although the grant information from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council differs in content from the information related to the completed research reports from departments, the inventory organizes the material within similar categories.  With respect to each field and/or category, we created descriptors and summary statements that would appropriately reflect the major aspects of the item.

                        Under each departmental or agency section, the organization is generally chronological (most recent date to most distant).  If a department covered the subject from the perspective of multiple groups, then the documents are organized thematically, for example, women, Aboriginal peoples, youth, etc., are grouped together.

                        In several instances, we supplemented departmental information with material obtained from the Library of Parliament collection, through Internet searches and from suggestions offered by colleagues.  The supplementary effort utilized various approaches but was not intended to be exhaustive.


   D.  Observations Derived from Responses 

                        The request for information and documentation about research on illegal drugs elicited varying responses.  The following section highlights a number of issues that arose from this preliminary survey of governmental-sponsored research.  The methodology employed in this survey is limited and does not permit firm conclusions about the extent and nature of ongoing research in Canada.  However, the observations derived from the federal responses may be useful to the development of recommendations related to future efforts to compile ongoing inventories of research on illegal drugs.

 

      1.  Establishment of Central, Ongoing Registry 

                        Respondents commended the Senate Committee’s effort to collect information on illegal drug research in Canada.  Departmental respondents frequently mentioned that they would benefit from access to a central and ongoing repository of information on research related to illegal drugs.  They noted that, although there was some communication among departments about research efforts, it was often restricted to personal interactions and intermittent updates.  Several respondents observed that a one-time effort to create an inventory could be time and resource consuming without ensuring comprehensive and consistent results.  Some suggested a possible ongoing role with accompanying resource allocation for the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.  Overall, respondents supported any future endeavour to ensure the continual monitoring, collection, analysis and dissemination of this type of information about research.

 

      2.  Collection of Documentation 

                        As requested, most federal departments assigned one individual as a contact person to coordinate the collection of material.  One unexpected consequence of this approach is that, in many cases, the information appears to have been collected from one branch or even one division of a department but not necessarily across all potential areas.  As a result, the inventory is fragmented and incomplete.  Without inside knowledge of the departments and their multiple policy and program areas, there are difficulties in assessing the comprehensiveness of information from large departments.  For example, with respect to Health Canada, the initial letter requesting research information did not extract any documentation about possible studies completed by the Centres of Excellence for Women’s Health, HIV/AIDS research program, National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program, or National Health Research and Development Program prior to its current configuration.  Also, for Justice Canada, information was received from the Research and Statistics Division but not from other divisions within the broader Policy Integration and Coordination Section or from divisions within the Criminal Law Policy and Community Justice Section where the National Crime Prevention Centre resides.

 

      3.  Interpretation of the Term “Research” 

                        Respondents generally interpreted the term “research” as products that involved information and analysis of information for general public consumption.  They tended to send documents that were prepared to communicate findings on data collection and analyses for the general public but did not appear to include material prepared for internal departmental analyses.  Although the letter had specifically requested material in a variety of forms (laboratory experiments, clinical trials, case studies, population surveys, community observations, cost analyses, outcome evaluations, historical assessments, literature reviews), much of the documentation reflected material available on public websites rather than internal databases.  According to the inventory, the most common type of research supported by federal departments seems to be literature reviews and population surveys; few respondents included outcome evaluations of programs or cost analyses.  For the research funding agencies, the descriptions seldom specified the type of study but do suggest laboratory and clinical studies, attitude surveys, historical reviews as well as theoretical models. 

 

      4.  Distribution among Disciplines 

                        The respondents were asked to identify research from a range of disciplines including social, historical, anthropological, criminological, geopolitical, economical, medical, psychological and pharmacological.  The inventory entries include both descriptions of research grants from federal funding bodies as well as descriptions of final study reports by departmental bodies.  On departmental documentation, while the thematic area could be deduced, it was difficult to determine the disciplinary orientation of the individuals or groups who initiated and carried out the research.  In addition, the available material generally did not indicate whether the research was the result of work by in-house departmental or agency specialists, independent consultants, university researchers, or individuals from community-based organisations.  The research funding bodies (Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council) provided the clearest information on the area of study.  In some instances, there appeared to be links between funding for research grants and funding for concurrent or later research contracts that result in a departmental or other publication.  For example, a research grant issued under the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council or Canadian Institutes of Health Research might be connected to a concurrent or subsequent departmental contract where an independent expert could be engaged to write a report on the same topic for a particular department.  

 

      5.  Assessment of Research Priorities and Funding 

                        Any efforts to establish research priorities and to allocate funds accordingly could benefit from a full knowledge of current as well as past spending in the area of illegal drugs.  Respondents were not specifically asked to include information about the allocation of resources to illegal drug research and the majority did not provide such data.  Departmental respondents provided completed documents available to the public without any indication of costs and none included monetary details about research studies conducted for internal policy or program application.  Some departmental replies such as Correctional Services Canada included references to specific programs and evaluation research but did not stipulate how much money was designated.  The federal funding bodies (Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council and Canadian Institutes of Health Research) did include particulars about the amounts assigned to particular research grants.  However, in spite of a question in the annexed guide about current and future priorities, none of the respondents provided information about how research priorities and funding allocations are established for certain drugs or particular affected groups.


LETTER AND ANNEXED GUIDE 

Dear (department or agency head): 

                        In June 2000, the Senate established a Special Committee on Illegal Drugs to which I was appointed as Chair.  The Committee’s work is supported by a research program focusing on the following broad axes: 

·        socio-historical, anthropological, criminological, geopolitical and economics issues;

·        medical and pharmacological aspects;

·        legal aspects in a national perspective;

·        legal aspects in an international perspective;

·        ethical issues and standards and norms of behaviour in Canada 

                        The Committee’s work also involves public hearings with expert witnesses.  The Committee began hearing witnesses in October but with the calling of a general election, these activities have been suspended.  As I expect this committee to resume work when parliament reconvenes, I am continuing to collect relevant information needed for its future work.  The purpose of this letter is to solicit your assistance in this endeavour. 

                        I would like to know the nature and extent of current government-funded research on illegal drugs and related issues in Canada.  The research could relate to any of the five areas of work outlined for the Special Committee on Illegal Drugs.  Specifically, I would very much appreciate any information about empirical research funded by your department (or agency) within the last five years addressing the first two areas of the Senate Committee’s proposed study, particularly the socio-historical, anthropological, criminological, geopolitical, economical, medical, psychological and pharmacological aspects. 

                        Such research may include laboratory experiments, clinical trials, case studies, population surveys, community observations, cost analyses, outcome evaluations, historical assessments as well as literature reviews.  I also wish to determine where the government-funded research is taking place (for example, is the research being carried out by in-house departmental or agency specialists, by independent consultants, by university researchers, or in partnership with community-based organisations).  Finally, it may include any work that focused on illegal substances such as cannabis, heroin, cocaine, etc. and the implications for affected groups including Aboriginal people, street youth, injection drug users, etc. 

                        I believe that there will be considerable public benefit from knowledge of completed and ongoing research that resides within your department (or agency).  Whenever possible, I would appreciate a copy of the completed research report.  If the project is ongoing, a copy of the original proposal or a brief description of the intended research would be welcomed along with information on its future availability.

If you could designate a contact person to facilitate this information collection, it would be extremely helpful from my perspective.  In turn, I have asked the Parliamentary Research Branch to coordinate this work on my behalf.  I suggest that you contact Nancy Miller Chenier at (613) 995-7383 or Sonya Norris at (613) 995-3475 for further information on this request.  When the information is collected by your department (or agency), it can be sent to either of these researchers at:  Parliamentary Research Branch, Library of Parliament, 151 Sparks Street, Room 907, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0A9.  They would appreciate hearing from you or the appropriate contact person by the end of February 2001.

Thanking you in advance for your cooperation, 

(signed) Pierre Claude Nolin
Senator              


Annexed Guide to Research Request by Senator Nolin for Special Senate Committee on Illegal Drugs 

                        Has your department or agency funded externally or conducted internally any research on illegal drugs between 1995 and 2000?

        Research characteristics to consider:

·        illegal substances such as cannabis, heroin, cocaine, etc. (excluding illegal use of alcohol, tobacco, prescription drugs)
·        affected groups including Aboriginal people, street youth, injection drug users, women, etc. 
·        socio-historical, anthropological, criminological, geopolitical, economical, medical, psychological and pharmacological dimensions
·        laboratory experiments, clinical trials, case studies, population surveys, community observations, cost analyses, outcome evaluations, historical assessments as well as literature reviews
·        research by in-house departmental or agency specialists, independent consultants,  university researchers, community-based organizations, etc.

What is the status of this research?  When was it initially funded?  Is it currently completed, still ongoing or at the initial proposal stage? 

Is any information about the research currently available for Senate Committee study?  Can proposals, interim reports or final reports be provided at this time? 

Has your department or agency developed a research plan for work on illegal drugs?  What are your current or future priorities for research in this area? 

Does your department or agency have a key contact person or persons to respond to further enquiries about illegal drug research?


FEDERAL INVENTORY

SECTION I:  RESEARCH AGENCIES

Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The drug-crime relationship:  from a cause-based to a process-based explanation.
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area:  criminology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant of $64,400 was allocated in 1996 to Serge Brochu of the Université de Montréal, for a three-year period.


Name of organization
:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Developing young people’s aptitudes and skills for not using psychotropic substances and for postponing first
sexual contacts.
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area:  education, psychology, youth
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant of $98,000 was allocated in 1997 to Gaston Godin of the Université Laval and Pierre Valois of the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières.  The three-year project was administered by the Université Laval.


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Comparative analysis of socio-occupational reintegration of young people with and without diplomas as a function of addiction.
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area:  education, labour market, youth
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant of $117,000 was allocated in 1998 to Marie-Denyse Boivin and Geneviève Fournier, both with the Université Laval, for a three-year period.

Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Proportion of crimes attributable to alcohol and drugs.
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area:  criminology
Drug references:  alcohol (and other drugs)
Additional information:  A grant of $83,400 was allocated in 1999 to Serge Brochu of the Université de Montréal, for a three-year period.

Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Victimization among users of psychoactive substances.
Type of study:  doctoral fellowship
Thematic area:  criminology, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant of $46,056 was allocated in 1996 to Isabelle Parent of the Université de Montréal, for a three-year period.


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The developmental trajectory of female young offenders/addicts.
Type of study:  doctoral fellowship
Thematic area:  psychology, social, criminology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant of $49,860 was allocated in 1998 to Sylvana Côté of the Université de Montréal, for a three-year period.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Comparison of the effects of short-term motivational therapy and short-term confrontational therapy in treating
addiction.
Type of study:  doctoral fellowship
Thematic area: 
psychology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant of $66,480 was allocated in 1999 to Yves Piché of the Université de Montréal, for a four-year period.

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Sharing food and drugs:  a dialectic of health and harm.
Type of study:  post-doctoral fellowship
Thematic area:  health, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant of $61,856 was allocated in 2000 to Olga Duhamel of the University of Western Ontario, for a two-year period.


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The exit trajectories from injectable drug use by young street people.
Type of study:  post-doctoral fellowship
Thematic area:  criminology, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant of $75,056 was allocated in 2001 to Céline Bellot of the Université du Québec à
Montréal, for a two-year period.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Collective research into the socio-health aspects of addiction.([1])
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area:  health, psychology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant of $600,000 was allocated in 1999 to researchers Serge Brochu, Joël Tremblay, Louise Guyon, Michel Landry, Michel Perreault, Marie-Denyse Boivin, et al., for a three-year period.  The funding, administered by the Université de Montréal, was allocated under the Community-University Research Alliances (CURA) program, a SSHRC pilot project.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Social support:  defining and reinforcing its role in adult substance abuse treatment.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  psychology, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant for $60,000 was allocated in 1996 to Patricia Dobkin and Kathryn Gill, both with McGill
University, for a three-year period.

Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Role of imagery in exercise participation, adherence and addiction.
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area:  psychology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant for $75,000 was allocated in 1997 to Craig Hall, with the University of Western Ontario, and Wendy Rodgers, with the University of Alberta.  The project, to last three years, was to be administered by the University of Western Ontario.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Testing models of delinquency:  a secondary data analysis approach.
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area:  criminology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant for $37,350 was allocated in 1998 to Augustine Brannigan, with the University of Calgary, for a three-year period.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) 
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Economic warfare, embargo busting and enterprise crime.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  crime, economics
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant for $31,050 was allocated in 1998 to Thomas Naylor, with McGill University, for a three-year period.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Opium in East Asian history, 1830-1945.
Type of study:  congress and/or conferencepreparation
Thematic area:  history, social
Drug references:  opium
Additional information:  A grant for $10,000 was allocated in 1996 to Timothy Brook, with the University of Toronto, for a one-year period, to prepare for a conference to be held in Toronto from 9 until 11 May 1997.

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Sacred crusade:  anti-drug campaigns, 1920-1980.
Type of study:  doctoral fellowship 
Thematic area:  history, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant for $46,056 was allocated in 1996 to Catherine Carstairs, with the University of Toronto, for a three-year period.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Perceptual reactance and drug addiction.
Type of study:  doctoral fellowship
Thematic area:  psychology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant for $46,056 was allocated in 1996 to Marilyn Keyes, with the University of Ottawa, for a three-year period.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Ethnography of outreach workers in risk reduction programs for injection drug users.
Type of study:  doctoral fellowship 
Thematic area:  anthropology, ethnography, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant for $16,620 was allocated in 1998 to Gordon Roe, with Simon Fraser University, for a one-year period.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The social organization of heroin and marijuana distribution networks in Montreal, 1983-1994.
Type of study:  doctoral fellowship 
Thematic area:  criminology, social
Drug references:  heroin, marijuana
Additional information:  A grant for $33,240 was allocated in 1998 to Carlo Morselli, with the Université de Montréal, for a two-year period.


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Exploring the link between violence, women and substance abuse.
Type of study:  doctoral fellowship 
Thematic area:  criminology, sociology, women
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant for $33,240 was allocated in 1999 to Judith Grant, with York University, for a two-year period.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The influence of social networks on patterns of drug and alcohol use.
Type of study:  post-doctoral fellowship
Thematic area:  criminology, social
Drug references:  alcohol (and other drugs)
Additional information:  A grant for $55,968 was allocated in 1995 to N. Scot Wortley, with the University of Toronto, for a two-year period.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A 
Summary:  Understanding autonomy, self-trust, and integrity from the point of view of the lives of people with addictions.
Type of study:  post-doctoral fellowship 
Thematic area:  ethics, psychology, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A grant for $60,225 was allocated in 1999 to Carolyn McLeod, with the University of Western Ontario, for a two-year period.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Self-determination and health:  a research program on decision making in substance abuse and addiction treatment.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  administrative, health, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  A sum of $282,930 was awarded in the year 2000 to T. Cameron Wild, with the University of Alberta, for a three-year period.  Said sum was awarded as part of the CIHR/SSHRC/NHRDP Health Career Award program, a program or competition administered by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) but funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR).


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Enhancement of youth resiliency and reduction of harmful behaviours leading to healthy lifestyle choices.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, psychology, youth
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  An amount of $600,000 was awarded in 1999 to scholars John Yardley, Tony Bogaert, John
Cairney, Kelli-an Lawrance, Darla MacLean, Zopito Marini, etc., for a three-year period, to be administered by Brock University.  Said funding was awarded as part of the Community-University Research Alliances (CURA) program, a SSHRC pilot program.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  A proposed health initiative concept:  towards a Canadian health research institute on addictions.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  administrative, health, research
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  An amount of $38,000 was awarded in 1999 to scholars Eric Single, Jacques LeCavalier, Andrée 
Demers, Louise Nadeau, and Louis Gliksman, for a one-year period, to be administered by the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) 
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Building networks and network research through the CIHR:  towards a functional “institute without walls” on addictions.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  administrative, research
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  An amount of $30,000 was awarded in 1999 to scholars Christiane Poulin, Nady El-Guebaly, Louis Gliksman, Eric Single, etc., for a one-year period, to be administered by Dalhousie University.  Said amount was awarded under the auspices of the Tri-Council Workshop/Networking Program (a joint program comprising the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Medical Research Council of Canada; and meant to promote multi- and inter-disciplinary research linkages). 

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Illicit opiate addiction, treatment and policy in Canada:  a cross-disciplinary, comprehensive and concerted research initiative (i.e., addiction treatment, cocaine and opiate dependence, Hepatitis C, HIV and AIDS, psychiatric disorders, psychosocial interventions, social costs, etc.)
Type of study:  includes animal studies, clinical studies, as well as cohort studies 
Thematic area:  health, psychology, social, economic
Drug references:  cocaine, opiates
Additional information:  An amount of $157,382 was granted to Benedikt Fischer in 2000-01, to be paid through the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Central mechanisms of stimulant addiction (i.e., drug self-administration, mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurons, prefrontal cortex, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area:  health, biology, physiology
Drug references:  cocaine, stimulants
Additional information:  An amount of $33,337 was granted to Alain Gratton in 1995-96, to be paid through the Douglas Hospital Research Center in Verdun, Qué.  A further $33,337 was paid in 1996-97; $8,334 in 1997-98; $23,928 in 1997-98; $46,692 in 1998-99; $47,626 in 1999-00; as well as $5,805 plus $23,219 in 2000-01.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  5-HT and dopamine in the mesocorticolimbic system (i.e., dopamine/5-HT interaction, atypical anti-psychotic drug action, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, biology, physiology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  An amount of $22,489 was granted to Andrew J. Greenshaw in 1995-96, to be paid through the
University of Alberta.  A further $44,978 was paid in 1996-97; $44,978 in 1997-98; $22,489 plus $5,622 in 1998-99. 



Name of organization: 
Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Neurotransmitter mechanisms and drug actions in the central nervous system (i.e., electrophysiology, neuropeptides, nucleus accumbens, psychostimulants, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology 
Drug references: 
N/A
Additional information:  An amount of $38,598 was granted to Samuel B. Kombian in 1996-97, to be paid through the University of Alberta.

Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The role of the placenta in perinatal toxicology:  the search for biological markers (i.e., hair analysis, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  biology, health
Drug references:  alcohol, cocaine (tobacco as well)
Additional information:  An amount of $60, 956 was granted to Gideon Koren in 1995-96, to be paid through Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children.  A further $30,478 was paid in 1996-97; $40,500 in 1996-97; $81,000 in 1997-98; $81,000 in 1998-99; $42,120 plus $41,310 in 1999-00; and $84,240 in 2000-01. 


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Respiration and neuromodulators in development and hypoxia:  effects of prenatal cocaine (i.e., microdyalisis, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology
Drug references:  cocaine
Additional information:  An amount of $12,487 was granted to JianKai Liu in 1999-00, to be paid through Montreal Children’s Hospital; a further $3,729 was paid in 2000-01.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Canadian consortium for the investigation of cannabinoids in human therapeutics (i.e., analgesics, chronic pain, neurophatic pain, spasticity, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology, pharmacology
Drug references:  cannabis, marijuana
Additional information:  An amount of $40,000 was granted to Mary E. Lynch in 1999-00, to be paid through Dalhousie University. 

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Behavioural sensitization, tolerance and withdrawal effects after chronic stimulants (i.e., drug abuse, psychoses, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, psychology
Drug references:  stimulants
Additional information:  An amount of $14,883 was granted to Mathew T. Martin-Iverson in 1995-96, to be paid through the University of Alberta.

Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Systematic reviews of the efficacy and safety of four medical uses of marijuana (i.e., AIDS, anorexia, chemotherapy, multiple sclerosis, pain and quality of life, spasticity, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, pharmacology
Drug references:  cannabis, marijuana
Additional information:  An amount of $202,698 was given to David Moher in 2000-01, to be paid through the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO).


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Dopamine-glutamate interactions in sensitization to amphetamine (i.e., behavioural sensitization, mid-brain, stimulants, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology
Drug references:  amphetamines, stimulants
Additional information:  An amount of $19,430 was granted to Isabella Moroz in 1999-00, to be paid through Concordia University.  A further $19,430 was paid in 2000-01.



Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Dopamine glutamate and binge-abstinence-relapse cycles of psycho-stimulant abuse (i.e., behaviour in vivo electrochemistry, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  An amount of $98,016 was granted to Anthony G. Phillips in 1999-00, to be paid through the University of British Columbia.  A further $83,833 was paid in 2000-01.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  A population-based inquiry into stimulant use among adolescents:  a research program (i.e., attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse, etc.)
Type of study:  includes surveys 
Thematic area:  health, youth, psychology
Drug references:  stimulants
Additional information:  An amount of $6,127 was granted to Christiane C. Poulin in 1997-98, to be paid through Dalhousie University.  A further $43,567 was paid in 1998-99; $50,304 in 1999-00; and $50,304 in 2000-01.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Role of sensory neurotransmitters and their messengers in opioid tolerance (i.e., analgesia, morphine tolerance, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology
Drug references:  morphine, opiates
Additional information:  An amount of $17,944.17 was granted to Kelly J. Powell in 2000-01, to be paid through Queen’s University.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Neural mechanisms involved in cocaine self-administration (i.e., GABA modulation of cocaine reinforcement, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology
Drug references:  cocaine
Additional information:  An amount of $55,044 was granted to David C. Roberts in 1995-96, to be paid through Carleton University.  A further $31,891 plus another $27,522 was paid in 1996-97; $59,382 in 1997-98; and $59,382 in 1998-99.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Gene expression and psychomotor stimulant addiction (i.e., antisense oligonucleotides as tools, immediate-early genes and drug addiction).
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, genetic
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  An amount of $6,300 was granted to Harold A. Robertson in 1995-96, to be paid through Dalhousie University, plus another $9,272.  A further $37,088 was paid in 1996-97; $46,360 in 1997-98; $46,360 in 1998-99; $93,431 in 1999-00; and $89,541 in 2000-01.


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Dopamine-neurotensin interactions in the central nervous system (CNS):  behavioural and electrophysiological studies (i.e., prefrontal cortex, schizophrenia, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology, psychology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  An amount of $46,141 was granted to Pierre-Paul Rompré in 1995-96, to be paid through Montreal’s Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur and/or l’Université de Montréal.  A further $46,141 was paid in 1996-97; $25,945 plus $11,535 in 1997-98; $44,989 in 1998-99; $45,889 in 1999-00; and $22,944 plus $75,496 in 2000-01.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Drug withdrawal and vulnerability to relapse.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, psychology, social
Drug references:  cocaine, heroin
Additional information:  An amount of $34,198 was granted to Yavin Shaham in 1996-97, to be paid through the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.  A further $47,134 was paid in 1997-98; $47,134 in 1998-99; and $15,686 in 1999-00.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Cannabinoids in the control of nausea and vomiting (i.e., the brainstem and cannabinoid receptors, emesis, the enteric nervous system, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology, pharmacology
Drug references:  cannabis
Additional information:  An amount of $101,542 was granted to Keith A. Sharkey in 2000-01, to be paid through the University of Calgary.



Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Neural substrate for brain stimulation reward (i.e., medial forebrain bundle, reward mechanisms, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  An amount of $48,241 was granted to Peter Shizgal in 1995-96, to be paid through Concordia University.  A further $48,241 was paid in 1996-97; $48,241 in 1997-98; $48,241 in 1998-99; $65,012 in 1999-00; and $50,012 in 2000-01.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  FMRI in young adults exposed pre-natally to marijuana.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology
Drug references:  marijuana
Additional information:  An amount of $26,833 was granted to Andra M. Smith in 2000-01, to be paid through Carleton University.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Conditioned physiological changes to repeated administration of psychoactive drugs (i.e., behavioural sensitization, opiate and stimulant drug enduring changes in dopamine and/or dopaminergic functioning, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology, pharmacology
Drug references:  opiates, stimulants
Additional information:  An amount of $61,981 was granted to Jane Stewart in 1995-96, to be paid through Concordia University.  A further $30,990 plus $50,969 was paid in 1996-97; $73,498 in 1997-98; $102,080 in 1998-99; $74,968 in 1999-00; and $74,968 in 2000-01. 


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  CCK involvement in psycho-stimulant drug reward and/or drug craving (i.e., behaviour cholecystokinin, nucleus
 accumbens, peptide transmitters, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  An amount of $57,656 was granted to Franco J. Vaccarino in 1995-96, to be paid through the University of Toronto and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.  A further $28,826 plus $61,376 was paid in 1996-97; $67,176 in 1997-98; $93,300 in 1998-99; $68,520 in 1999-00; and $68,520 in 2000-01.

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  New cocaine congeners:  radiotracers for dopamine receptors.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology
Drug references:  cocaine
Additional information:  An amount of $28,500 was granted to Alan A. Wilson in 1995-96, to be paid through the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.  A further $28,500 was paid in 1996-97.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Dopaminergic correlates of intravenous drug abuse (i.e., opiates, stimulants, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A  
Thematic area:  health, physiology
Drug references:  opiates, stimulants
Additional information:  An amount of $50,662 was granted to Roy A. Wise in 1995-96, to be paid through Concordia University.  A further $23,180 plus $50,662 was paid in 1996-97; $88,167 in 1997-98; $76,227 in 1998-99; 


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  Muscarinic receptors in reward and locomotion (i.e., antisense olgigonucleotides, brain stimulation, M5 Receptord, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, physiology
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  An amount of $25,385 was granted to John S. Yeomans in 1997-98, to be paid through the University of Toronto.  A further $47,386 was paid in 1998-99; $55,467 in 1999-00; and $55,467 in 2000-01.


Name of organization:  Canada.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The natural history and consequences of alcohol and drug use, problem use and dependence from childhood to young adulthood in a community sample (i.e., epidemiology, psychiatric disorders, risk factors, substance dependence, etc.)
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, psychology, youth, social
Drug references:  alcohol, marijuana
Additional information:  An amount of $77,408 was granted to Mark Zoccolillo in 2000-01, to be paid through Montreal Children’s Hospital.



FEDERAL INVENTORY

SECTION II:  DEPARTMENTS/AGENCIES

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Canada’s Alcohol and Other Drugs Survey, 1994:  A Discussion of the Findings; prepared for the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues by Patricia MacNeil and Ikuko Webster, along with Florence Kellner, Christiane Poulin, and Eric Single; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1997, 92 p.
Summary:  This publication constitutes a detailed look at Canadian’s behaviours and attitudes around alcohol and other drugs as revealed in the second and most recent national survey conducted under the research arm of Phase II of Canada’s Drug Strategy, a collaborative endeavour of federal, provincial and territorial governments, and various other groups.  This publication looks at alcohol, tobacco, licit drugs, illicit drugs, and gambling, and reflects a greater emphasis on so-called applied research; it also contains a section on public opinion with regard to such issues.
Type of study:  survey
Thematic area:  health, psychology
Drug references:  alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, crack/cocaine, glue and solvents, heroin, LSD, etc.
Additional information:  This publication updates and expands on data gathered in the 1989 National Alcohol and Other Drugs Survey.

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Canada’s Alcohol and Other Drugs Survey, 1994:  Preview 1995;published by Health Canada, Ottawa, Fall 1995, 6 p.  
Summary:  This is a preview of the findings of the most recent cross-Canada survey of alcohol and other drugs; it is part of
the second and most recent national survey conducted under the research arm of Canada’s Drug Strategy, a collaborative endeavour of federal, provincial and territorial governments, and various other groups.  This preliminary survey was conducted by Statistics Canada on behalf of Health Canada.  Interviewing took place in Edmonton, Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver, during the fall of 1994 and sample size was 12,155.
Type of study:  survey
Thematic area:  health, psychology
Drug references:  alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, LSD, steroids and solvents, etc.
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Canada’s Drug Strategy;prepared by the Interdepartmental Working Group on Substance Abuse; published by the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1998, 29 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  Canada’s Drug Strategy is meant to reflect a balance between reducing the supply of drugs and reducing the demand for drugs.  It is a combined effort of various government departments as well as many other groups.  Seven components actually provide the framework for Canada’s Drug Strategy; they are:  1) research and knowledge development; 2) knowledge dissemination; 3) prevention programming; 4) treatment and rehabilitation; 5) legislation, enforcement and control; 6) national coordination; and 7) international cooperation.
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area:  criminology, health, legislative, social
Drug references:  alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, heroine, LSD,etc.
Additional information:  N/A


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Straight Facts About Drugs & Drug Abuse;prepared in partnership with various groups; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 2000, 60 p. (includes bibliographic references as well as a list of contact organizations)
Summary:  This booklet was written primarily as a resource for police, educators, trainers, social service and health care providers, as well as students.  It provides diverse information on commonly used mood-altering or psychoactive drugs such as hallucinogens, opioids, stimulants, antidepressants, etc.  It contains detailed information on each of those drugs, such as a description, its origin and medical uses, its short- and long-term effects, its tolerance and dependence properties, its legal status, etc.  It also addresses the issue of why people take drugs and discusses Canada’s Drug Strategy.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, social
Drug references:  alcohol, cannabis, opiates, steroids, stimulants, etc.
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Best Practices:  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects and the Effects of Other
Substance Use During Pregnancy
;prepared by Gary Roberts and Jo Nanson for Canada’s Drug Strategy Division, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, December 2000, 118 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This document examines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)/Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), a complex, but preventable problem.  Specifically, this document looks at both the human costs and the economic costs associated to that particular problem, as well as the specific needs of various population groups.  
Type of study:  literature review
Thematic area:  health, economic, women and children
Drug references:  alcohol, cannabis, inhalants, opiates, stimulants, etc. 
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Situational Analysis:  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects and the Effects of Other Substance Use During Pregnancy;prepared by Carole Legge, Gary Roberts and Mollie Butler; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, December 2000, 68 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This publication constitutes a “situational analysis” project on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) / Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and the effects of other substance use during pregnancy.  It examines various prevention, identification, and intervention issues, as well as community and systems support programs now in place.  
Type of study:  survey 
Thematic area:  health, social, women and children
Drug references:  alcohol, inhalants, opiates, stimulants, etc.
Additional information:  Project undertaken in the Spring of 1999 by the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA); survey itself lasted until December 1999.

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Literature Review:  Evaluation Strategies in Aboriginal Substance Abuse Programs:  A Discussion;published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1999, 61 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This document examines various Aboriginal substance abuse programs, with an aim to “presenting the different approaches to prevention and treatment that are currently being used, and identify the indicators of effectiveness these programs have used in evaluations”; it looks at alcohol use as well as drug abuse and solvent abuse.  
Type of study:  literature reviewand survey
Thematic area:  Aboriginals, criminology, health, social
Drug references:  alcohol, solvents
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  HIV/AIDS Epi Update:  HIV and AIDS Among Aboriginal People in Canada;published by the Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Health Canada, Ottawa, April 2000, 7 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report constitutes an update on the status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among Canada’s Aboriginal people and looks at injection drug use (IDU) as one of the risk factors.
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area:  Aboriginals, HIV/AIDS
Drug references:  cocaine, Ritalin, talwin, etc.
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Profile:  Substance Abuse Treatment and Rehabilitation in Canada;prepared by Gary Roberts and Alan Ogborne in collaboration with Gillian Leigh and Lorraine Adam for the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1999, 48 p. (includes bibliographic references and a glossary)
Summary:  This report profiles the history and present system of substance abuse treatment and rehabilitation in Canada.  It includes information on various groups who provide such services, including federal and provincial and/or territorial governments.  It also includes information on standards, monitoring and evaluation, professional development, treatment philosophies and practices as well as ongoing challenges and emerging issues.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, social, political
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  N/A 

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Best Practices:  Substance Abuse Treatment and Rehabilitation;prepared by Gary Roberts and Alan Ogborne in collaboration with Gillian Leigh and Lorraine Adam for the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1999, 92 p. (includes bibliographic references and a glossary)
Summary:  This report reviews national and international literature on substance abuse treatment and rehabilitation and makes recommendations on best practices.  It examines various treatment approaches and considers various factors that can affect treatment effectiveness.  It also examines effective approaches for treating special populations (i.e., women, youth, clients with concurrent mental health problems, clients living with HIV/AIDS, etc).  Finally, it addresses issues such as the economic benefits of substance abuse treatment.  
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area: 
health, economic, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada. Health Canada.
Bibliographic data:  A Study of Resiliency in Communities;prepared by the Atlantic Health Promotion Research Centre in collaboration with Miriam Stewart, Graham Reid, Leonard Buckles, Wayne Edgar, Colin Mangham, Neil Tilley and Susan Jackson for the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1999, 99 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This study describes the concept of resiliency at the community level and its potential for use in health promotion and population health.  It profiles three small communities on the Atlantic coast that were hard hit by the collapse of the groundfish industry in the 1990’s:  Chéticamp, N.S., Isle Madame, N.S., and Dildo, Nfld, identifying factors related to risk, protection, and how communities rebuild following adversity.  It also includes recommendations (sixteen of them).  
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, psychology, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada. Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Resiliency; Relevance to Health Promotion; Annotated Bibliography;prepared by Colin Mangham, Patrick McGrath, Graham Reid and Miriam Stewart in collaboration with the Atlantic Health Promotion Research Centre for the Alcohol and Other Drugs Unit, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1995, 57 p.  (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This document belongs to a three-part series.  It identifies current literature about substance use (or abuse) and mental health and highlights relevant links; it also provides annotations.
Type of study:  literature review
Thematic area:  health, psychology, mental health
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Resiliency:  Relevance to Health Promotion:  Detailed Analysis;prepared by Colin Mangham, Patrick McGrath, Graham Reid and Miriam Stewart in collaboration with the Atlantic Health Promotion Research Centre for the Alcohol and Other Drugs Unit, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1995, 28 p.  (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This document belongs to a three-part series.  It provides an expanded definition of resiliency that includes individuals as well as systems and that has five major components:  1) human systems; 2) optimum health and functioning; 3) risk; 4) protective factors; and 5) time.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, psychology, social, mental health
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Resiliency:  Relevance to Health Promotion:  Discussion Paper;prepared by Colin Mangham, Patrick McGrath, Graham Reid and Miriam Stewart in collaboration with the Atlantic Health Promotion Research Centre for the Alcohol and Other Drugs Unit, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1995, 21 p.  (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This document belongs to a three-part series.  It reviews the background research on resiliency, offers an expanded definition of the concept, and discusses potential implications for health promotion research, programs and policy.  Hypothetical case studies are included to illustrate concepts and applications of resiliency to health promotion.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  health, psychology, mental health
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  N/A


Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Exploring the Links Between Substance Use and Mental Health; Section I:  A Discussion Paper; Section II:  A Round Table;prepared under contract to Health Canada through the Atlantic Health Promotion Research Centre by Colleen Hood, Colin Mangham, Don McGuire, and Gillian Leigh; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1996, 78 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This study highlights the history of linkages between mental health and substance use, and how one’s state of mind can influence the amount, frequency and effect of that substance.  It contains discussions of issues identified through a literature search, issues associated with the links that exist between mental health and substance use, and ideas for improving health promotion and treatment.  To illustrate such linkages, the authors use a model placing mental health and substance use on continuums that include common protective and risk factors.  Current approaches and challenges in prevention and health promotion are discussed.  Treatment issues such as dual disorders and philosophical differences between the mental health and addictions fields are also included.  Various recommendations meant to improve health promotion and treatment are also made.
Type of study:  N/A
Thematic area:  addiction, health, mental health, psychology, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Exploring the Links Between Substance Use and Mental Health; Section I:  An Annotated Bibliography; Section II:  A Detailed Analysis;prepared by Colleen Hood, Colin Mangham, Don McGuire, and Gillian Leigh, along with Nathalie Guérin and Harman Kochhar; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1996, 252 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This document includes an “annotated bibliography” as well as a “detailed analysis” of  those links that exist between substance use and mental health.  This document includes references that deal with risk and protective factors for substance use and/or mental health as well as references that deal with exploring the links between mental health and substance use and references that deal with prevention and treatment.  
Type of study:  literature review 
Thematic area:  addiction, mental health, psychology, social
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Horizons One:  Older Canadians’ Alcohol and Other Drug Use:  Increasing Our Understanding;edited by David Hewitt, Garry Vinje and Patricia MacNeil; published by the Alcohol and Other Drugs Unit, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1995, 63 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report summarizes some of the most significant and interesting results about older Canadians’ alcohol and other drug use from recent survey research.  It also highlights gaps in current knowledge and suggests methods by which deficiencies in our understanding can be corrected.  It looks at the use of alcohol, tobacco, medications, and illegal drugs among older Canadians; and it concludes with recommendations concerning specific questions that could be included in future surveys.
Type of study:  survey 
Thematic area:  health, seniors
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs (tobacco and medications as well)
Additional information:  N/A 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Horizons Two:  Canadian Women’s Alcohol and Other Drug Use:  Increasing Our Understanding;edited by David Hewitt, Garry Vinje and Patricia MacNeil; published by the Alcohol and Other Drugs Unit, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1995, 56 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report summarizes some of the more significant results about women’s substance use from recent Canadian survey research.  It also highlights gaps in current knowledge and provides guidelines for collecting data on women’s use of substances as well as sample survey questions to address women’s issues, concerns, and situations.  It explains that, until the 1980’s, surveys mostly used questions that were based on men’s experiences and that those questions were not necessarily relevant to women’s experiences.  It also discusses the fact that tranquilizers and other medications are too often prescribed to women as a means of solving certain problems rather than addressing those problems directly.
Type of study:  survey
Thematic area:  health, women
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs (tobacco and medications as well)
Additional information:  N/A


Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Horizons Three:  Young Canadians’ Alcohol and Other Drug Use:  Increasing Our Understanding;edited by David Hewitt, Garry Vinje and Patricia MacNeil; published by the Alcohol and Other Drugs Unit, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1995, 93 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report summarizes some of the most significant and interesting results about young people’s alcohol and other drug use from recent Canadian surveys.  It also highlights gaps in current knowledge and suggests methods to correct deficiencies, providing a comprehensive set of survey questions for assessing alcohol and other drug use by young people.
Type of study:  survey
Thematic area:  health, youth
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs (tobacco and medications as well)
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Second National Workshop on HIV, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use:  Proceedings:  Edmonton, Alberta, February 6-9, 1994;edited and published by the Organizing Committee, Edmonton, Ottawa, 1994, 127 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This document contains the proceedings of a major conference that was held to address various issues and concerns with regards to HIV/AIDS and alcohol or substance abuse; it contains a list of recommendations.
Type of study:  congress proceedings 
Thematic area:  health, HIV/AIDS
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  The conference was co-hosted by Health Canada, the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, the Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission, and the Alberta AIDS Program.  It was funded by the AIDS Education and Prevention Unit under the National AIDS Strategy and the Alcohol and Other Drugs Unit, under Canada’s Drug Strategy, Health Canada.

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Partners for Action:  A Canadian Workshop on Seniors and Medication, Alcohol and Other Drugs:  January 9, 10 and 11, 1995, Government Conference Centre, Ottawa;published by the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1995, 91 p.
Summary:  This report summarizes the discussion that took place at a 1995 workshop involving 89 participants from across Canada working on various issues relating to seniors and medication, alcohol and other drugs – and includes relevant recommendations.
Type of study:  congress proceedings 
Thematic area:  health, seniors
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs, medicationas well
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Report from “Working Together, a National Workshop for Action on Women and Substance Use”;published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1994, 64 p.
Summary:  This document contains proceedings of a workshop that was held in Ottawa in February 1994 on various issues relating to women and substance use (i.e., substance abuse at different life stages and among specific groups; it indicates the links with violence, HIV/AIDS, and mental health; etc.)
Type of study:  congress proceedings 
Thematic area:  addiction, health, women
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  The workshop was hosted by the Alcohol and Other Drugs Unit, Health Programs and Services Branch, Health Canada, as part of Canada’s Drug Strategy.  It was held in Ottawa from February 22 to 24, 1994, and comprised 66 participants from across Canada involved in women’s health, substance use, and other related areas.

Name of organization:  Candada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Best Practices:  Treatment and Rehabilitation for Women with Substance Use Problems;prepared by Janet C. Currie, Focus Consultants, for Canada’s Drug Strategy Division, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 2001, 84 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report identifies elements of best practice in the treatment and rehabilitation of women with substance use problems.  Best practices are identified and described in the areas of:  client outreach, contact and engagement, treatment principles, specific approaches and methods, client retention in treatment, treatment organization and duration, delivery of adjunctive services, and measurement of treatment effectiveness.  Recommendations for best practices are based on the results of interviews with some 40 key experts as well as a review of current literature related to these topic areas.  The report summarizes patterns and impacts of women’s substance use.  It also describes characteristics of specialized population groups, such as pregnant and parenting women, Aboriginal and ethno-cultural minority women, etc.
Type of study:  literature review and survey 
Thematic area:  addiction, health, women
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Rural Women and Substance Use:  Issues and Implications for Programming;published by the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Promotion and Programs Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1996, 49 p. (includes bibliographic references and a list of key contacts)
Summary:  This report identifies substance issues, programs and models for women in rural communities and identifies key components for a range of effective substance abuse programs.  The project involved a literature review and contacts with key informants to identify key issues and appropriate programs for rural women.
Type of study:  literature review and survey 
Thematic area:  addiction, health, rural communities, women
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Rural Women and Substance Use:  Insights from a National Project in Three Communities; published by the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1997, 34 p. (includes a list of key sources for resource material)
Summary:  This report documents the experiences of three rural communities interested in developing responses to meet the needs of women with substance abuse problems, including their successes and challenges.  Those three communities are:  1) Carmanville and surrounding area, Newfoundland; 2) Saint-Georges de Malbaie, in the Percé area, Quebec; and 3) Wynyard and surrounding area, Saskatchewan.  The report itself is meant to assist other communities interested in undertaking similar initiatives.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  addiction, health, rural communities, women
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Immigrant Women and Substance Use:  Current Issues, Programs and Recommendations;prepared for the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Population Health Directorate, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1996, 29 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This project was undertaken to learn more about substance use issues concerning immigrant, refugee and racial minority women.  The project resulted in a comprehensive literature review and report of consultations with key informants and program deliveries concerning substance use issues and programs for these populations.  The report itself describes existing programs and activities and makes suggestions and/or recommendations towards further program development.
Type of study:  literature review and survey 
Thematic area:  addiction, health, immigrants and minority groups, women
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Cocaine Use:  Recommendations in Treatment and Rehabilitation;prepared for the Canada’s Drug Strategy Division by G. Ron Norton, Michael Weinrath, and Michel Bonin, all with the University of Winnipeg; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 2000, 44 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report includes an historical overview of cocaine use as well as a profile of cocaine use in Canada (i.e., its use among women, youth, people living Hep C or AIDS, etc.)  It looks at the effects of cocaine as well as various treatment approaches (i.e., pharmacotherapy vs. behavioural treatments) and makes recommendations accordingly.
Type of study:  NA 
Thematic area:  criminology, health, social
Drug references:  cocaine
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  DWI Repeat Offenders:  A Review and Synthesis of the Literature;prepared by Douglas J. Beirness, Daniel R. Mayhew and Herb M. Simpson, with the Traffic Injury Research Foundation, for the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1997, 156 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  The literature on the problem of repeat driving-while-impaired offenders in Canada (i.e., DWI offenders) shows that as many as three-quarters of the persons convicted on a DWI offence are repeat offenders and that these very same drivers account for a substantial proportion of alcohol-related crashes.  This report provides a comprehensive review of the literature on this dangerous group and examines diverse tactics for improving prevention, identification, apprehension, sanction and rehabilitation programs.
Type of study:  literature review   
Thematic area:  driving while impaired, road safety
Drug references:  alcohol
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  DWI Repeat Offenders:  A Review and Synthesis of the Literature:  Highlights;published by the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1997, 23 p.
Summary:  This report provides the highlights of a 1997 156 p. technical report entitled DWI Repeat Offenders:  A Review and Synthesis of the Literature.  This shorter version identifies and summarizes characteristics of DWI repeat offenders.  It also reviews existing countermeasures for dealing with such individuals and provides recommendations accordingly.  
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  driving while impaired, road safety
Drug references:  alcohol
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Evaluation of the Addictions Foundation of Manitoba’s Impaired Drivers’ Program;published by the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1997, 116 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report documents the retrospective evaluation of the Addictions Foundation of Manitoba’s Impaired Drivers’ Program.  This model program is an integrated system of assessment and rehabilitation and the results of the assessment are meant to guide decision-making regarding effective interventions.
Type of study:  program evaluation 
Thematic area:  driving while impaired, road safety
Drug references:  alcohol
Additional information:  N/A 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  The Street Lifestyle Study;prepared by Tullio Caputo, Richard Weiler and Jim Anderson for the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1997, 50 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report presents the results of a research project designed to examine the antecedents to street involvement and to identify prevention strategies aimed at young people who are at risk of going to the street.  It examines factors that keep young people on the street as well as factors that may represent barriers to their leaving the street.  Intervention strategies for assisting young people in getting off the street and factors that facilitate the transition to mainstream society are also considered.  It should be noted that research sites were identified in each of the five federal regions, including the Atlantic region, Quebec, Ontario, the Prairies, and the Pacific region.
Type of study:  survey 
Thematic area:  homeless, youth
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Best Practices:  Treatment and Rehabilitation for Youth with Substance Use Problems;prepared by Janet C. Currie, Focus Consultants, for Canada’s Drug Strategy Division, Health Canada; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 2001, 59 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report identifies elements of best practice in the treatment and rehabilitation of youth with substance use problems.  Best practices are identified and described in the areas of client outreach, contact and engagement, retention of clients in treatment, overall treatment values/philosophy, specific approaches and methods, relapse prevention, structure of treatment and integration of relevant support services.  Recommendations for best practices are based on the results of interviews with 33 key experts and a review of current literature related to these topic areas.  The report also addresses barriers to treatment affecting the youth population.  In order to provide a context for examining treatment barriers and effective approaches for youth, the report summarizes general patterns of youth substance use in Canada and provides an overview of factors associated with substance use.  Characteristics of specialized population groups, such as street-involved youth, Aboriginal youth or youth involved in the juvenile justice system, are also described.
Type of study:  literature review and survey 
Thematic area:  youth
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Meeting the Needs of Youth-at-Risk in Canada:  Learnings from a National Community Development Project;published by the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1997, 105 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report details a collaborative initiative between Health Canada, provincial and/or territorial governments and some 42 communities across Canada.  (Sites were assisted in undertaking community development processes to address issues facing youth-at-risk).  This report presents a set of learnings and a model for community development for this target group that can be transferred to other communities.  The community development project in question was called the “Community Development – Out-of-the-Mainstream Youth (CD-OOMY) Project”; it had come about, in part, as a result of a series of four workshops sponsored by Health Canada in 1993 and 1994 in selected locations across Canada.
Type of study:  survey 
Thematic area:  community involvement, youth
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Meeting the Needs of Youth-at-Risk in Canada:  A Summary of the Learnings;published by the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1997, 4 p.
Summary:  This booklet provides a summary of the learnings detailed in a 1997 105 p. report entitled Meeting the Needs of Youth-at-Risk in Canada:  Learnings from a National Community Development Project.  It proposes a model for community development that addresses issues facing youth-at-risk:  1) developing and maintaining the group; 2) connecting to the target audience; 3) developing group capacity; 4) developing legitimacy; and 5) negotiating and contracting partnerships.
Type of study:  survey 
Thematic area:  community involvement, youth
Drug references:  N/A 
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Tips for Working with Youth in Community Development Projects;published by the Office of Alcohol, Drugs and Dependency Issues, Health Canada, Ottawa, 1997, 20 p.
Summary:  This brochure gives youth groups tips on how to involve youth and how to maintain youth involvement; it also provides tips on how to forge links with the wider community.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  community involvement, youth
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  N/A


Name of organization:  Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Peer Helper Initiatives for Out-of-the-Mainstream Youth:  A Report and Compendium;prepared by Tullio Caputo, Richard Weiler and Lara Green; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, 1996, 86 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This document includes a review of relevant literature on peer helper initiatives (goals, target populations, training requirements and evaluation strategies).  It focuses on the types of peer helper initiatives that are successful in working with youth-at-risk and the challenges that are present when developing or maintaining peer helper initiatives.  The study was based on site visits in selected communities, interviews and focus groups discussions with youth-at-risk and those providing services to these young people. 
Type of study:  literature review and survey  
Thematic area:  community involvement, youth
Drug references:  N/A
Additional information:  N/A


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Health Canada
Bibliographic data:  Horizons 1994:  Alcohol and Other Drug Use in Canada;prepared by Eric Single, Anne MacLennan and Patricia MacNeil; co-published by the Health Promotion Directorate, Health Canada, and the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Ottawa, 1994, 56 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This was the first research-based publication to emerge after Canada’s Drug Strategy entered its second phase in 1992.  Published in 1994, it was a most comprehensive review of knowledge available at that time about alcohol and other drug use as well as related health and social problems in Canada.  It also examined work of potentially national significance in all of the provinces and territories concerning people particularly at risk:  women, Aboriginals, out-of-the-mainstream youth, seniors, impaired drivers, etc.
Type of study:  literature review 
Thematic area:  health, social
Drug references:  alcohol, licit and illicit drugs (and tobacco)
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of Organization:  Canada.  Justice Canada
Bibliographic data:  The Relationship Between Illegal Drugs and Firearms:  A Literature Review;prepared by Eugene Oscapella; published by the Research and Statistics Division, Justice Canada, Ottawa, July 1998, 31 p. (working document no. WD1998-10E)
Summary:  This study examines the links that exist between illegal drugs and firearms, using two methods:  1) literature reviews – American literature for the most part – and 2) interviews with Canadian police officers who have worked in drug law enforcement.  This study finds that drugs and firearms appear to be linked in several ways:  the drug trade is regulated by violence, often with firearms; dependent drug users may need to commit crimes in order to secure the money necessary to buy illegal drugs, and they may use firearms in order to commit those crimes.
Type of Study:  literature review and survey
Thematic area:  criminology, firearms
Drug References:  N/A
Additional Information:  This study was funded by the Canadian Firearms Centre, Justice Canada.

Name of Organization:  Canada.  Justice Canada
Bibliographic data:  Questions & Answers on Drug Use and Offending;published by the Research and Statistics Division, Justice Canada, Ottawa, 2000, 21 p. (Q&A no. 2000-2e)
Summary:  This publication provides easy, basic Q & A information on drug use and offending in Canada.  Amongst other things, it explains the 1997 Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA).  As well, it examines drug use among Canadians and the effect of such drug use on both the penal and the health care system.  It also includes a number of statistics as to sentencing, length of sentencing, etc.
Type of Study:  statistical study
Thematic area:  criminology, health, prison populations
Drug References:  illicit drugs
Additional Information:  N/A

 

Name of Organization:  Canada.  Justice Canada
Bibliographic data:  Profile and Projection of Drug Offences in Canada;prepared by Kwing Hung and Nathalie L. Quann; published by the Research and Statistics Division, Justice Canada, Ottawa, February 2000, 29 p.
Summary:  This publication provides a series of statistics and/or charts relating to drug offences in Canada (i.e., a historical profile of trends in the past twenty years plus a five-year projection of trends into the future, including police data, court data, with data by province and/or territory as well as national).
Type of Study:  statistical study
Thematic area:  criminology
Drug References:  illicit drugs
Additional Information:  N/A


Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada   
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division is currently designing a program known as the “Women Offenders Substance Abuse Program.”  This particular program is meant to meet the special needs of women offenders who are addicted to drugs and/or alcohol.  An external expert advisory panel will provide direction; consultations with women offenders and other stakeholders are planned as well.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.  
Type of study:  in-house program 
Thematic area:  prison populations, criminology, health, women
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division will develop a program entitled “Aboriginal Substance Abuse Program.”  To ensure that it remains culturally sensitive, this particular program will be developed by various Aboriginal groups that are experienced with addiction issues.  A national Aboriginal advisory committee will also assist.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.  
Type of study:  in-house program
Thematic area:  Aboriginals, prison populations, criminology, health
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division is developing a program entitled “High Intensity Substance Abuse Program.”  This program, which is being developed using in-house program experts from across the country, will provide a more extensive program than was previously available for the most serious addicted offenders.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.  
Type of study:  in-house program
Thematic area:  prison populations, health
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A


Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division is developing, in co-operation with the John Howard Society of Moncton, a program entitled “Enhanced Community Intervention Program for Substance Abusers.”  This program will include a core substance abuse treatment component with enhanced use of community resources and emphasis will be on “individualized” treatment.  The “Enhanced Community Intervention Program for Substance Abusers” will be directed at offenders who, in addition to their substance abuse problems, have great need for support in other areas such as employment, family relations, finance, community living, etc.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001. 
Type of study:  in-house program 
Thematic area:  prison populations, social, health, criminology
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division is setting up a feasibility study entitled “Feasibility of Specialized Intervention for Drug Dealers.”  This feasibility study is being carried out in order to determine the type and level of need for drug dealers as a group and to outline possible program components (i.e., it has been found that some offenders who have convictions for drug related offences do not have an addiction and that for those particular individuals some other type of intervention is needed in order to reduce the likelihood of continued drug offences, especially as traditional substance abuse programs appear to be somewhat less efficient in their case).  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001. 
Type of study:  in-house study 
Thematic area:  drug dealers, prison populations, health


Drug references: 
illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A
Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division is setting up a program entitled “Redevelopment of the Computerized Lifestyle Assessment Instrument (CLAI).”  Redevelopment of the CLAI should result in a reduction of the time required to administer substance abuse assessments to offenders but should not affect the integrity of the program referral data.  Redevelopment of the CLAI will also update test instruments where required and will strive for more efficiency.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001. 
Type of study:  in-house program 
Thematic area:  prison populations, research
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division is carrying out a study entitled “Identification and Assessment of Offenders with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS).”  This study will try and determine the most appropriate tools for assessing adult offenders for evidence of FAS.  (Most physical characteristics of FAS are reduced as a child grows and by adulthood identification using physical characteristics becomes very difficult; consequently, other characteristics must be found).  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001. 
Type of study:  in-house study
Thematic area:  prison populations, research
Drug references:  alcohol
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division is carrying out a study on “Intensive Support Units.”  Research on the impact of intensive support units that assist addicted and non-addicted offenders maintain a drug-free lifestyle will assist in determining the benefits of these units.  This study will profile offenders in these units, measure recidivism outcome and look at institutional impacts.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.
Type of study:  in-house study 
Thematic area:  prison populations, criminology
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division is carrying out a study entitled “Recidivism Follow-up of Offenders Treated with Methadone.”  This study will follow offenders who have received methadone as part of the Phase I methadone program after their release in order to determine the impact that methadone may have on release outcome.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.
Type of study:  in-house study
Thematic area:  prison populations, social, health
Drug references:  illicit drugs(methadone as well)
Additional information:  N/A


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division is carrying out a study entitled “Impact of Methadone on Offender Behaviour.”  This particular study will look at offender behaviour prior to and during methadone treatment in order to determine if behavioural changes are evident (i.e., anecdotal evidence suggest that offenders being treated with methadone are much calmer and present fewer challenges to staff).  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.
Type of study:  in-house study 
Thematic area:  prison populations, social, psychology
Drug references:  illicit drugs (methadone as well)
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division is carrying out a study called “Community Follow-up of Methadone Treated Offenders:  Impacting More than Recidivism.”  This particular study will investigate community impacts of methadone treatment beyond recidivism (i.e., studies have shown that those receiving methadone are less likely to be involved in undetected criminal activity, that they make reduced demands on the health care system, and that they are more likely to be employed; and that these outcomes contribute to a safer, healthier community environment for all).  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.
Type of study:  in-house study 
Thematic area:  prison populations, social, criminology, health
Drug references:  illicit drugs(methadone as well)
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Divisionis carrying out random drug testing in institutions; resulting research analysis should establish patterns of testing, determine the degree to which the testing is random, as well as determine how the results might be used in furthering our understanding of drug use patterns in individual institutions and across the country.  Changes in drug use patterns across time will also be examined and patterns of test failure explored in conjunction with the development of offender profiles.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.
Type of study:  in-house study  
Thematic area:  prison populations, social, criminology
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A 



Name of organization: 
Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Divisionwill be trying to improve the effectiveness of “reasonable grounds” drug testing in institutions.  Analyses of the hit rate for “reasonable grounds” drug testing will be conducted to study the effectiveness of this intervention and to identify how greater accuracy could be achieved.  Comparisons of offender characteristics will also be made in order to determine if any useful relationship does exist.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.
Type of study:  in-house study
Thematic area:  prison populations, social
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A 
Summary: 
The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division will assess the results of community drug testing.  Drug testing to monitor abstinence program conditions will be studied in order to determine patterns of failure and characteristics of offenders who are at increased risk to fail.  Success/failure patterns across time will be identified and/or evaluated.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.
Type of study:  in-house study
Thematic area:  prison populations, criminology
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division will attempt to better understand the offender population by developing detailed profiles of substance abusing offenders in order to better identify those offenders’ needs within an overall treatment context.  In addition, the analyses thus obtained will identify groups of offenders who may require specialized interventions that go beyond their substance abuse problem.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.
Type of study:  in-house study
Thematic area:  prison populations, psychology, criminology
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division will conduct analyses in order to determine if it is possible to measure the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in the offender population using currently available information on lifestyle, learning, and behavioural characteristics.  It is believed that knowing the incidence of FAS among offenders would help determine the best method of providing intervention.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.
Type of study:  in-house study
Thematic area:  prison populations, health
Drug references:  alcohol
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division will be developing a “database of addictions researchers in Canada” in order to 1) reduce the chances of duplication of effort and 2) increase our opportunities for building strong relationships with the addictions research community.  The database will be available on the internet and will be accessible to researchers and to staff from the Correctional Service.  (At present time, addictions researchers across Canada work in a large number of varied institutions and identifying those researchers for potential collaborative work can be difficult).  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.
Type of study:  in-house project
Thematic area:  addiction, research
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information: 
N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  N/A
Summary:  The Correctional Service’s Research Branch, Addictions Research Division will build a research facility in Montague, P.E.I.  The new Addictions Research Division (ARD) facility will provide office accommodation for up to 24 people working for the ARD.  It will incorporate the latest computer and telecommunication technology in order to allow researchers rapid access to data and consultation within Canada and around the world.  Internationally renowned researchers will be invited to visit and work at this new ARD facility and contribute their knowledge understanding challenges facing ARD and/or the Correctional Service.  Note:  this information was provided as part of the Division’s “Research Plan” for 2000-2001.
Type of study:  in-house project 
Thematic area:  addiction, prison populations, research
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  An Investigation into the Characteristics of Substance-Abusing Women Offenders:  Risk, Need and Post-Release Outcome;prepared by Craig Dowden and Kelley Blanchette; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, April 1999, 50 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This study compared women offenders who were substance abusers to those who were not.  Groups were compared on a number of different criteria:  risk and need variables, demographic characteristics, and recidivism data.  The final sample comprised 251 women offenders, almost 60% of whom had successfully completed a substance abuse treatment program at some point during their incarceration.  Results of this study reveal clear and reliable differences between substance abusers and non-abusers in a variety of areas assessed at intake; they also reveal that, of women with substance abuse problems, those who completed relevant programming fare better after release than their untreated counterpart.  Its conclusion is essentially that appropriate assessment, classification, and intervention with women substance abusers can significantly increase their potential for successful community reintegration.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  prison populations, women, criminology, health, social
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  Case Needs Review:  Substance Abuse Domain;prepared by Fred J. Boland, Katherine Henderson and Jan Baker, with Queen’s University; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, December 1998, 97 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This is a review of substance abuse assessment measuring instruments that are used or that could be used for offender populations by the Correctional Service of Canada – and why.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  prison populations, evaluation
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome:  Implications for Correctional Service;prepared by Fred J. Boland,
Rebecca Burrill, Michelle Duwyn and Jennifer Karp; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional
Service of Canada, Ottawa, July 1998, 92 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report reviews the literature on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) from the perspective of the implications this condition might have for the criminal justice system and for Correctional Service of Canada.  It is presented in three parts.  Part I provides a basic background about the disorder.  Part II traces the course and consequences of this condition, including the connection to delinquency and crime.  Part III, finally, considers the possibility of identifying FAS and related effects in individuals who come in contact with the criminal justice system, and how institutional and post-release programs might best fit their needs.  This report also includes recommendations.
Type of study:  literature review
Thematic area:  prison populations, health, criminology
Drug references:  alcohol
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  The Offender Substance Abuse Pre-Release Program:  Analysis of Intermediate and Post-Release Outcomes;prepared by William A. Millson and John R. Weekes, with Correctional Service of Canada, and Lynn O. Lightfoot, with Queen’s University; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, August 1995, 41 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the Offender Substance Abuse Pre-Release (OSAP) program in improving offenders’ post-release success and in changing their problematic substance abuse behaviour.  This study, using a sample of 317 offenders, concludes in support of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural programs in the treatment of offenders with substance abuse problems and that examination of the intermediate and post-release outcomes suggest that the OSAP program is an effective intervention for developing the skills and cognitive abilities that are of critical importance in assisting offenders:  1) to reduce the likelihood of becoming re-involved in alcohol and drugs; and 2) to reduce the likelihood of being re-admitted back into custody for either a technical violation or for new criminal offences.  This study also suggests that OSAP program performance is indeed predicative of offenders’ re-admission.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  prison populations, evaluation, psychology
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  Native Offender Substance Abuse Assessment:  The Computerized Lifestyle Assessment Instrument;prepared by Susan A. Vanderburg, John R. Weekes and William A. Millson; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, July 1994, 36 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  The Computerized Lifestyle Assessment Instrument (CLAI) is a standardized assessment tool that has been adapted and implemented by the Correctional Service of Canada to identify offenders with substance abuse problems, to assess the nature and severity of their problems, and to assist in the development of suitable treatment programming.  This report focuses on the appropriateness of the use of the CLAI with Aboriginal offenders by examining potential differences in CLAI results for both Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals.  It concludes that substance abuse assessment information generated by the CLAI accurately represents the nature of substance abuse problems for both Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  Aboriginals, prison populations, psychology
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  The Native Offender Substance Abuse Pre-Treatment Program:  Intermediate Measures of Program Effectiveness;prepared by John R. Weekes and William A. Millson; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, February 1994, 27 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This report highlights the preliminary results of a substance abuse pre-treatment program designed specifically to meet the needs and concerns of Aboriginal offenders.  The program, known as the Native Inmate Substance Abuse Pre-Treatment Project, was developed by the National Native Association of Treatment Directors and sponsored by the federal government along with various other groups.  This report focuses on three main areas:  1) determination of level of substance abuse severity; 2) measuring pre- to post-program improvement on specific program target areas; and 3) exploring facilitator ratings completed on each participant following the completion of the program.  
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  Aboriginals, prison populations
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  An Assessment of the Offender Substance Abuse Pre-Release Program at Drumheller Institution;prepared by Bart Millson and David Robinson; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, November 1992, 25 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  The “Offender Substance Abuse Pre-Release Program” is a treatment program designed to address a variety of drug and alcohol problems experienced by offenders.  It involves 26 half-day sessions totalling approximately 85 hours of program instruction where the offenders are educated about the consequences of excessive substance abuse and how it impacts on important aspects of their lives.  Specifically, the program consists of nine different sections:  1) introduction; 2) alcohol and drug education; 3) self-management skills training; 4) problem-solving, cognitive and behavioural skills training; 5) social skills training; 6) job skills refresher training; 7) leisure and lifestyle planning; 8) pre-release planning; and 9) graduation.  It also includes individual counselling sessions for the participants.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  prison populations, psychology, social
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A 


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections:  An End-of-1998 Review;published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, 1999, 22 p.  
Summary:  This report summarizes data on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections.  Statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity, and the nature of the offence are also provided; as are distributions with respect to security level and release status, as well as region.
Type of study:  statistical study 
Thematic area:  prison populations, social, criminology
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections:  An End-of-1997 Review;prepared by Laurence L. Motiuk and Raymond L. Belcourt; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, January 1998, 22 p.  
Summary:  This report summarizes data on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections.  Statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity, and the nature of the offence are also provided; as are distributions with respect to security level and release status, as well as region.
Type of study:  statistical study 
Thematic area:  prison populations, social, criminology
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections:  An End-of-1996 Review;prepared by Laurence L. Motiuk and Raymond L. Belcourt; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, January 1997, 22 p.  
Summary:  This report summarizes data on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections.  Statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity, and the nature of the offence are also provided; as are distributions with respect to security level and release status, as well as region.
Type of study:  statistical study 
Thematic area:  prison populations, social, criminology
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections:  An End-of-1995 Review;prepared by Laurence L. Motiuk and Raymond L. Belcourt; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, April 1996, 22 p.  
Summary:  This report summarizes data on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections.  Statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity, and the nature of the offence are also provided; as are distributions with respect to security level and release status, as well as region.
Type of study:  statistical study 
Thematic area:  prison populations, social, criminology
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  Statistical Profiles of Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections;prepared by Laurence L. Motiuk and Raymond L. Belcourt; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, April 1995, 21 p.  
Summary:  This report summarizes data on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections.  Statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity, and the nature of the offence are also provided; as are distributions with respect to security level and release status, as well as region.
Type of study:  statistical study 
Thematic area:  prison populations, social, criminology
Drug references:  illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  A Comparison of the French and English Versions of the Computerized Lifestyle Assessment Instrument;prepared by John R. Weekes, Susan A. Vanderburg and William A. Millson; published by Corporate Development, Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, April 1995, 14 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  The Computerized Lifestyle Assessment Instrument (CLAI) is a standardized assessment tool that has been adapted and implemented by the Correctional Service of Canada to identify offenders with substance abuse problems, to assess the nature and severity of their problems, and to assist in the development of suitable treatment programming.  The CLAI, it should be noted, was initially developed in English – and subsequently translated into French for use with French-speaking offenders.  An important research and operational question is the reliability, validity, and the general appropriateness of the translated version of the CLAI for administration to French-speaking offenders.  This study therefore examines some of these issues by comparing the psychometric structure of the French- and English-language versions of the CLAI, by assessing francophone and anglophone offenders’ feedback on their impressions of the instrument, and by examining the nature and the characteristics of substance abuse problems for francophone and anglophone offenders.  In the end, this study concludes in support of the use of both the French and the English versions of the CLAI as a means of accurately identifying substance abuse among offenders (i.e., regardless of their cultural and/or linguistic backgrounds).
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  francophones, prison populations, psychology, evaluation
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A


Name of organization: 
Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome:  Understanding its Impact”; article prepared by Fred Boland and Michelle Duwyn, of Queen’s University, and Ralph Serin, of the Correctional Service of Canada; published in Forum on Corrections Research([2]), vol. 12, no. 1, January 2000, p. 16-18 (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This article examines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) from the perspective of the implications this condition might have for the criminal justice system and for the Correctional Service.
Type of study:  literature review 
Thematic area:  prison populations, health, social
Drug references:  alcohol
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  “Solutions:  An Intensive Substance Abuse Program”; article prepared by Alta Peachey, of the Edmonton Institution for Women, Correctional Service of Canada; published in Forum on Corrections Research,vol. 11, no. 3, September 1999, p. 34-36
Summary:  This article discusses the Substance Abuse Program for Federally Sentenced Women, a program that was developed in 1995 (and first put in place in Edmonton in 1996) to meet the needs of women with moderate substance abuse problems.
Type of study:  in-house project 
Thematic area:  prison populations, women
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  “Case Need Domain:  Substance Abuse”; article prepared by Craig Dowden and Shelley L. Brown, of the Correctional Service of Canada; published in Forum on Corrections Research,vol. 10, no. 3, September 1998, p. 28-30 (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This article presents the findings of a meta-analytic review of substance abuse factors and criminal recidivism (some 45 studies in all were reviewed).  The authors of this article found that the predictor category of combined alcohol and/or drug problem yields the highest mean effect size, followed by the predictor categories of drug abuse problem, parental substance abuse and alcohol abuse problem.  The authors propose recommendations for streamlining the substance abuse domain of the Case Needs Identification and Analysis (CNIA) component of the Offender Intake Assessment (OIA) process.
Type of study:  literature review and survey 
Thematic area:  prison populations
Drug references: 
alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  “Case Need Domain:  Substance Abuse Assessment Review”; article prepared by Fred Boland, Kathy Henderson and Jan Baker, of Queen’s University; published in Forum on Corrections Research,vol. 10, no 3, September 1998, p. 32-34 (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This article highlights key findings from an extensive review that examined the prevalence of substance abuse among offender populations as well as the various measures that have evolved for substance abuse assessment in offender and non-offender populations.  It also proposes recommendations for enhancing the substance abuse domain of the Case Needs Identification and Analysis (CNIA) instrument currently being used by the Correctional Service of Canada.
Type of study:  literature review and survey 
Thematic area: 
prison populations
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  “Factors Influencing the Outcome of Offender Substance Abuse Treatment”; article prepared by John R. Weekes, of the Correctional Service of Canada, William A. Millson, of Balex Research and Statistical Counsulting, and Lynn O. Lightfoot, of Queen’s University; published in Forum on Corrections Research,vol. 7, no. 3, September 1995, p. 8-11 (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This article examines the impact of three potentially key factors (severity of the substance abuse problem, risk of recidivism, and treatment performance) on the substance abuse treatment outcome of inmates who are subsequently released.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  prison populations
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information: 
N/A 

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  “Early Substance Use and its Impact on Adult Offender Alcohol and Drug Problems”; article prepared by Susan A. Vanderburg, John R. Weekes and William A. Millson, of the Correctional Service of Canada; published in Forum on Corrections Research,vol. 7, no. 1, January 1995, p. 14-16 (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This article investigates the origins of adult offender substance abuse problems by examining a number of characteristics of their early alcohol and drug use. 
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  prison populations
Drug references:  alcohol, drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  “The Effects of Neurophsychological Impairment on Offender Performance in Substance Abuse Treatment”; article prepared by William A. Millson and John R. Weekes, of the Correctional Service of Canada; published in Forum on Corrections Research, vol. 6, no. 2, May 1994, p. 14-17 (includes bibliographic references)   
Summary:  This study examines the effect of neuropsychological impairment (defined broadly as psychological or physiological problems caused by injury or damage to the brain) on offenders who completed the Offender Substance Abuse Pre-Release Program (OSAPP).  OSAPP provides cognitive-behavioural substance abuse treatment designed specifically for offenders identified as having moderately severe drug or alcohol problems.
Type of study:  N/A 
Thematic area:  prison populations
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs
Additional information:  N/A

 

Name of organization:  Canada.  Correctional Service of Canada
Bibliographic data:  Literature Review – Substance Abuse Treatment Modalities;published by Correctional Research and Development, Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, March 1996, various paginations.  (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  As part of its Classification Study, the Correctional Service of Canada conducted an extensive review of the literature on approaches and techniques in substance abuse treatment.  This particular review includes descriptions for 25 modalities or so, along with a summary of the research evidence on the effectiveness of each.  It finds the following techniques effective:  assertion training, controlled drinking strategies, employment training, methadone, provision of aftercare, problem solving, recognizing high risk situations, relapse techniques, and social skills training.
Type of study:  literature review 
Thematic area:  prison populations
Drug references:  alcohol, illicit drugs(methadone as well)
Additional information:  N/A 


FEDERAL INVENTORY

SECTION III:  FEDERAL/PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL COMMITTEES

Name of Organization:  Federal/Provincial/Territorial Advisory Committee on Population Health (ACPH)
Bibliographic data:  Reducing the Harm Associated with Injection Drug Use in Canada:  Working Document for Consultation; prepared by the F/P/T Advisory Committee on Population Health, along with the F/P/T Committee on Alcohol and Other Drug Issues, the F/P/T Advisory Committee on AIDS, the F/P/T Heads of Corrections Working Group on HIV/AIDS, and the “Multi-Disciplinary Committee of Senior Justice and Health Officials Developing a Comprehensive Canada-Wide Response to Illicit Drug Use and Emerging Substance Abuse Issues”; published by Health Canada, Ottawa, March 2001, 63 p. (includes bibliographic references)
Summary:  This “working document” constitutes the federal/provincial/territorial response to recent reports and consultations recommending action be taken in order to reduce the harm associated with injection drug use (IDU) in Canada.  It represents the joint effort of the F/P/T Advisory Committee on Population Health (ACPH) and four federal/provincial/territorial committees representing 1) alcohol and drugs, 2) AIDS, 3) corrections, and 4) justice.  The document first examines societal and economic costs that are associated with injection drug use in this country.  It then proposes a number of “priority actions” to be undertaken – i.e., priority actions with regard to 1) prevention; 2) outreach; 3) treatment and rehabilitation; 4) research, surveillance, and knowledge dissemination; and 5) national leadership and coordination.  The document also looks at a number of “alternatives” that have been tried either in Canada or in other countries – i.e., alternative therapies and/or methods such as methadone, LAAM, the prescription of heroin, needle exchange programs, supervised injection sites,([3]) etc.
Type of Study:  N/A
Thematic area:  health, social, economic
Drug References:  cocaine, heroin, steroids, etc. (methadone and LAAM as well)
Additional Information:  Document obtained under the Access to Information Act. 


([1])        The acronym CRASST is used in French.

([2])        Forum on Corrections Research is published three times a year by the Correctional Service of Canada.

([3])        i.e., supervised « shooting galleries ».


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