Special Committee on Illegal Drugs

37th Parliament - 1st Session


- Date: Monday,  March  18, 2002
- Location:  Room 160-S, Centre Block


- William B. McAllister, Professor, University of Virginia
   Brief: Presentation for Canadian Senate on International Drug Diplomacy
- Testimony

From the  Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, International Crime Division:

- Terry Cormier, Director
   Presentation: International Dimensions of Drug Policy
- Testimony

- Stephen Bolton, International Drug Officer
- Testimony

- David Beall, Executive Secretary, The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD)
   Brief: Canada's Special Committee To Examine Current Drug Policies 
- Testimony

- Date: Monday,  March  11, 2002
- Location:  Room 160-S, Centre Block


- Bill Marra,  Chair of the Standing Committee on Community Safety and Crime Prevention and Councillor for the City of Windsor
- Testimony

- John W. Conroy, Barrister, Counsel in R.v. Malmo-Levine and Caine  
   Presentation :  12 - 3 - 4 -
- Testimony

- Dr. Henry Haddad, President, Canadian Medical Association
- Testimony

- Dr. Bill Campbell, President, The Canadian Society of Addiction Medecine
- Testimony

Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police 

- Michael J. Boyd, Chair of the Drug Abuse Committe and Deputy Chief of the Toronto Police Service
- Testimony

- Barry King, Former Chair of the Drug Abuse Committe and Chief of the Brockville Police Service
- Testimony

- Robert G. Lesser, Vice Chair of the Drug Abuse Committee
- Testimony

- Date: Monday,  February 4, 2002
- Location:  Room 160-S, Centre Block


- Diane Steber Büchli, Head, International Drug Affairs Unit, Swiss  Federal Office of Public Health
   Brief: Revision of the Swiss Federal Law on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, from 1951
- Testimony

- Françoise Dubois-Arber, Doctor, Foundation for Social and Preventive Medicine
- Testimony

- Georges Dulex, Head of Service, Criminal Police of the Canton of Zurich
- Testimony

- Dr. Ambros Uchtenhagen, Professor, Addiction Research Institute
   Background: Heroin Assisted Treatment for Opiate Addicts – The Swiss Experience (1)
   Background: Heroin Assisted Treatment for Opiate Addicts – The Swiss Experience (2)
- Testimony

- Date: Monday, December 10, 2001
- Location:  Room 160-S, Centre Block


- Céline Mercier, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry at McGill University 
   Brief: Addiction Trajectories
- Testimony

- Serge Brochu, Professor and Director, International Center for Comparative Criminologie, University of Montreal
  Brief: The Relationship Between Drugs and Crime
- Testimony

- Michel Landry, Director of Professional Services and Research, Centre Dollard-Cormier
   Presentation: A Summary of Evaluative Research Projects Conducted by RISQ in Addiction Rehabilitation Centres
   Brief: The Impact of Treatments Offered to Addicts in Quebec
- Testimony

- Date: Monday, November 19, 2001
- Location:  Room 160-S, Centre Block


- Steven van Hoogstraten, Director for International Criminal Affairs and Drug Policy
- Testimony

- Bob Keizer, Drug Policy Advisor
   Brief: The Netherlands' Drug Policy
- Testimony

-  Dirk J. Korf, Professor, University of Amsterdam
   Brief: Trends And Patterns In Cannabis Use In the Netherlands 
- Testimony

- Tim Boekhout Van Solinge, Lecturer and researcher in criminology
- Testimony

- Date: Monday, October 29, 2001
- Location:  Room 160-S, Center Block


- Dr Guy Ati Dion, Doctorate in Sociology, University of Quebec in Montreal
   Brief: The Structure of Drug Prohibition in International Law and in Canadian Law
   Brief: The Role Played By Medical Professionals in Drug Control in Canada in the Early 20th Century 
- Testimony

- Eugene Oscapella, Executive Director, Canadian Drug Policy Foundation
   Brief: How Drug Prohibition Finances and Otherwise Enables Terrorism
- Testimony

- Mark Connolly, General manager of the information with Canada Customs and Revenue Agency. 
- Testimony

- Robet Lesser, Chief Superintendant, RCMP
- Testimony

- Date: Monday, October 1, 2001
- Location:  Room 160-S, Centre Block


- Jean-Michel Costes, Director, French Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addictions
   Brief: Drug Use In France : Tools And Trends In 2001
- Testimony

- Michel Kokoreff, Lille University
Brief: The Uncertainty of Penal Policy. 
   Brief: The Case of the Hauts-de-Seine Department
   Brief: Drug Policy in France: From Criminalization to Risk Reduction
   Brief: “There is no such thing as a drug-free society.  Are drugs becoming the norm?
- Testimony

- Nicole Maestracci, President, Interministerial Mission for the Fight against Drugs and Drug Addiction
- Testimony

- Date: Monday, September 17, 2001
- Location:  Room 160-S, Centre Block


- Richard G. Mathias MD FRCPC, Professor, Health Care and Epidemiology Department, University of British Columbia
   Brief: A Public Health Perspective
- Testimony

- Colin R. Mangham, PhD
Brief: Implications of a Liberalized Drug Policy in Canada
- Testimony

- Bendikt J. Fischer, Professor, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto
   Brief: Considerations for a ‘Public Health’ approach to Cannabis Use Control in Canada
- Testimony

- Perry Kendall, As an individual
   Brief: Options for Social Control in the Context of other Licit and Illicit Psychoactive Substances;
- Testimony

- Date: Monday, June 11, 2001
- Location:  Room 160-S, Centre Block


- Mary Lynch, Director, Canadian Consortium for the Investigation of Cannabinoids, University of Dalhousie
   Brief: Canadian Consortium For The Investigation Of Cannabinoids In Human Therapeutics (Ccic)
- Testimony

- Harold Kalant, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto
   Brief: Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status
   Brief: Medical use of cannabis and of cannabinoids
- Testimony

- Mohamed Ben Amar, Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Montreal
   Brief: Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis
- Testimony

- John P. Morgan, Professor, University of New York Medical School
- Testimony

- Date: Monday, May 28, 2001
- Location:  Room 160-S, Centre Block


- Peter Cohen, Professor, University of Amsterdam
  Brief: Historical Perspectives and Conceptual Tools
- Testimony

- Alain Labrousse, Chargé de mission, Observatoire français des drogues et des toxicomanie
   Brief: The War Against Drugs and the Interests of Governments
   Brief: Sub-Saharan Africa Facing The Challenge Of Drugs
   Brief: Conflict, Drugs and Mafia Activities
- Testimony

From The Canadian Police Association (CPA)
- David Griffin, Executive Officer of the Canadian Police Association
- Testimony

- Glen Hayden, Detective with the Drug Control Section of the Edmonton Police Service
- Testimony

- Dale Orban, Sergeant from Regina Police & Director of the Regina Police Association 
- Testimony

   Brief: Table of Contents

- Date: Monday, May 14, 2001
- Location:  Room 257, East Block


- Jurgen Rehm, Professor, University of Zurich
   Brief : The costs of public policies to fight illegal drugs
- Testimony

- Eric Single, Professor, Department of Public Health Science, University of Toronto
   Brief: The impact of cannabis decriminalisation in Australia and the United States
   Presentation: The Australian experience and its implications to Canadian drug policy
- Testimony

- Andrew D. Hathaway, Ph.D., Researcher, From the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
   Brief: Cannabis Effects and Dependency Concerns in Long-term Frequent Users
   Brief: Charter Rights Of Canadian Drug Users
- Testimony

- Pat Erickson, Researcher
   Brief: Three Decades of Cannabis Criminals
   Brief: Canadian Cannabis Policy
- Testimony

- Date: Monday, April 23, 2001
- Location:  Room 257, East Block


- Bruce Alexander, Professor, Departement of Psychology, Simon Fraser University
Brief: The Myth of Drug-Induced Addiction
- Testimony

- Marie-Andrée Bertrand, Professor, Emeritus of Criminology, University of Montreal
  Brief: Testimony of Marie-Andrée Bertrand
- Testimony

36th Parliament, 2nd Session

- Date: Monday, October 16, 2000  9:30 a.m.
- Location:  Room 257, East Block


- Eugene Oscapella, Executive Director, Canadian Drug Policy Foundation
   Brief: Drugs, Criminal Justice and Social Policy
   Brief: The Criminal Law and Twentieth Century Canadian Drug Policy
- Testimony

- Line Beauchesne, Professor, Department of Criminology, University of Ottawa
   Brief: What do we in Canada want?
- Testimony

- Neil Boyd, Professor, School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University
   Brief: Drugs Policy in Canada
- Testimony

- Mark Zocollillo, Psychiatry, McGill University
- Testimony

Biographical profile of William B. McAllister

William B. McAllister
University of Virginia

 William B. McAllister received a Ph.D. in History from the University of Virginia in 1996.  He is currently a lecturer in history and a faculty consultant at the Teaching Resource Center at the University of Virginia.  Dr. McAllister’s Ph.D. dissertation concerned the history of international efforts to control drugs in the twentieth century.  Since 1996, he has written and presented extensively on the many issues related to international drug control policies.  Dr. McAllister is the author of Drug Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century – an International History published in 2000.  Finally, he is also a member of the American Historical Association, a reviewer for the Routledge Press and a referee for the Journal of Policy History.

Biographical profile of David Beall

David Beall

David R. Beall was born in Philadelphia, PA.  He received his Bachelor of Arts, English Literature and Economics from the University of Michigan in 1967.  He also received a degree in Public Administration from George Washington University in 1978.

From 1968 to 1999, he worked for the U.S. Department of State where he was involved in numerous overseas assignments including the direction of countrys’ narcotics program in Panama and Mexico.  Among his Washington assignments, Mr. Beall was the Executive Director of the Department of State’s worldwide inspector general operation, the country director for Brazilian Affairs and the Chief o Staff for the Bureau of American Affairs.

Mr. Beall is currently the Executive Secretary of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission, known as CICAD; a position he has been holding since 1995.

Biographical profile of Bill Marra

Bill Marra
Councillor for the City of Windsor

Biagio (Bill) Marra was born in Switzerland.  He is the oldest of four children, born to Giuseppe and Maria Marra.  The Marra family immigrated to Canada when Bill was 2 1/2 years of age, in April 1968, and they settled in Windsor.  Bill has been raised and educated in Windsor.  He graduated from W.D. Lowe Secondary School and he also studied at the University of Windsor, where he earned his Bachelor of Arts Degree in Sociology and his Bachelor of Arts Degree (four year major) in Criminology
Bill has been working in the field of Corrections since 1988.  He has worked as a Residential Counsellor for Young Offenders and he was also a Probation and Parole Officer with the Ministry of Corrections for six years.  Since February 1997, Bill has been the Executive Director of New Beginnings, an Open Custody Facility for Young Offenders.

In 1994 Bill was elected to City Council.  He was again re-elected in 1997. Bill has served on many of the City's major committee's including:  the City Centre Revitalization Committee, the Library Board, the Ford City Business Improvement Association and Redevelopment Committee, the Pillette Village Business Improvement Association, the Crime Prevention Committee, the Budget Steering Committee, the International Relations Committee, the Arena Board, the Planning Advisory Committee, the Essex Region Conservation Authority, the Carousel of the Nations Committee, the Roman Catholic and Essex County Children's Aid Society Board of Directors, the past Chairperson of the Essex-Windsor Solid Waste Authority, and current Chairperson of the Essex-Windsor Air Quality Committee, the Bingo Advisory Committee and Co-chair of the Windsor-Essex Crime Prevention Council.  Bill is also a Board Member of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities and he is Vice-chair of the Ontario Association of Community Correctional Residences.

Bill is married to Rita, and together they have three children, Joe-Anthony, Bianca and Dante.

Biographical profile of John Conroy

John Conroy
Conroy & Company

John Conroy, Q.C. was born in Montreal.  He received his university education at the University of British Columbia where he obtained a Bachelor of Physical Education and a Bachelor of Law.  He is a member of the British Columbia Bar Association and is currently the principal at Conroy & Company in Abbotsford.  He was appointed Queen’s Counsel in January 1996. 

Mr. Conroy is a member of many professional associations including the Law Society of British Columbia, the Canadian Bar Association, the Canadian Criminal Justice Association, the Canadian Civil Liberties Association, the British Columbia Civil Liberties Association, etc.  He has also held many positions, including being Chairman of the C.B.A. National, Standing Committee of the National Criminal Justice Section on Imprisonment & Release (1989-present). 

Mr. Conroy has been involved in many notable cases.  Of importance to our Committee, he is counsel in R. v. Caine, presently before the Supreme Court of Canada, dealing with constitutional challenge to the inclusion of cannabis in the Narcotic Control Act and Controlled Drugs and Substances Act insofar as it relates to personal possession and use. 

Mr. Conroy has also authored many books, articles and papers mainly dealing with criminal law issues and more specifically Canadian prison law.

Biographical profile of Henry Haddad

Henry Haddad, MD, FRCPC 
President, 2001-2002

Dr. Henry Haddad is a professor of medicine and former chief of gastroenterology and vice-dean for professional and student affairs at the University of Sherbrooke, Québec.  

Dr. Haddad was born in Sherbrooke. He was educated at Bishop’s University and at the University of Ottawa, where he obtained a medical degree in 1963 (gold medallist). He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and gastroenterology at Montreal General Hospital and the University of Pennsylvania, respectively. Dr. Haddad has been on the faculty of the University of Sherbrooke since 1969 and was appointed full professor in 1982.  

Dr. Haddad has represented the University of Sherbrooke’s Faculty of Medicine at the Medical Council of Canada.  

He was President of the Québec Medical Association (QMA) from 1997–1999 and a member of long standing of the Board of Directors of the QMA, including Chair of the Board, and has also chaired its education committee.  

On the national stage, Dr. Haddad has been a member of the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) Board of Directors since 1994. He was elected to the CMA Executive Committee in 1997. He has been chair of both the CMA’s Leadership Conference Program Committee since 1995 and the Project Advisory Group on Flexible Post-MD Systems since 1998. He has been a member of the Committee on Physician Resources and has represented the CMA on the Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools. Dr. Haddad also chaired the working group that produced the CMA’s Health Information Privacy Code, which focuses on protecting patient information in the electronic age.  

At Bishop's University, Dr. Haddad was until recently a member of the executive committee and chair of the building committee. At the University of Sherbrooke, he has presided over a number of committees, including the medical faculty’s committee on health and security in the workplace and undergraduates promotions.  

Dr. Haddad enjoys jazz, classical music and visual arts, and is particularly fond of abstract art from Québec artists.  

Dr. Haddad and Sheila have three grown children, Stéphanie, Valérie and Andrew, and two grandchildren, Nicholas and William. 

Biographical profile of Bill Campbell MD

Bill Campbell MD
The Canadian Society of Addiction Medicine

Bill Campbell was born and raised in Alberta. He obtained an MSc from the University of Alberta at Calgary, and his MD degree from the University of Alberta. Following that he did a rotating internship at the Holy Cross Hospital in Calgary followed by 2 years of internal medicine at the Foothills Hospital. He then started a family medicine practice and developed a special interest in addiction medicine in 1980 becoming ASAM certified in 1986 and recognized as a Fellow of the American Society of addiction Medicine in 2000.

He has been a member of The Canadian Society of Addiction Medicine since its inception in Calgary in 1989, and served as secretary, and as a as a Board Member from Alberta. He is a Clinical Associate Professor in Family Practice at the University of Calgary, practices addiction medicine privately, is a consulting physician at the Foothills Medical Centre Addiction Centre, the Calgary non-hospital medical detoxification center, as well as being a part time medical examiner.

His interests include enjoying the fellowship of friends, family and pets, skiing, inline skating, nonlinear dynamics, and the philosophy and ethics of mental health. 

Biographical profile of Michael J. Boyd

Michael J. Boyd
Deputy Chief of Police

Deputy Chief Boyd is presently a member of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police (C.A.C.P.) and the Chair of the C.A.C.P. Drug Abuse Committee.

He is the Co-Chair for Health, Education and Enforcement in Partnership (HEP) Steering Committee.  HEP is a national network for action on substance abuse established in 1994 and coordinated by the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. 

He has been a member of the Toronto Police Service for the past 32 years, having joined as a Police Cadet at the age of 17. 

He has worked in both uniform and plainclothes, but in his earlier years, his career has been spent primarily in the investigative or detective branches.  It was during this phase of his career when he dealt directly with victims of crime and suspects who committed crime while under the influence of drugs and/or motivated to do so to fund their drug addiction. 

He has been an innovator in the development and enhancement of investigative techniques and also in the design, development and application of new police technology. 

He was a member of the Toronto Police Homicide Squad for ten years and has acted as a consultant to both Canadian and American Law Enforcement agencies on criminal and homicide investigation.  He has lectured extensively on the subjects, both in Canada and the United States. 

In 1991, he transferred to the Toronto Police College, as the Section Head of the Cross-Cultural and Race Relations Section.  He led a team in the design and delivery of a new police training program focusing on police professionalism, ethics and human relations. 

In January 1993, he was appointed the Deputy Director of Training, Education and Development for the Service. 

On April 13, 1995, he was promoted to Deputy Chief of Police for Detective Support Command, where he led Detectives of the eight specialized investigative units, such as the Homicide Squad, the Sexual Assault Squad, and the Hold-Up Squad, etc.

On September 8, 2997, he was transferred to Central Field Command, leading eight Divisions and the Drug Squad with over 2,000 members in Toronto’s downtown area.  It was in this capacity that he worked with communities plagued by violent crime, property crime and disorder where the quality of life is diminished by people addicted to drugs victimizing others. 

He introduced the Intelligence-Led Policing process called Strategic Crime Management.  This focuses on community problem solving bringing together “The Big 5” which are; the community, the social and government agencies, the politicians, the media, and the police.  The process brings together in one model strategies for both crime prevention and law enforcement within a Community Policing Framework. 

On January 1, 2001, he was transferred to Policing Support Command, where he oversees eighteen Operational and Detective Support Services.  One of his present responsibilities is to develop programs for youth in schools, partnering with health and education professionals. 

He is a graduate of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I.) national Academy Program, which included a certificate in Criminal Justice Education from the University of Virginia. 

He was the Co-Chair of the “Training Committee” working at a Provincial level on the implementation of Recommendations of the Justice Archie Campbell Bernardo Inquiry – an Inquiry to enhance Sexual Assault/Homicide investigation in a multi-disciplinary and multi-jurisdictional method. 

He is also a member of the Campbell Transition Steering Committee and the Campbell Governance Committee. 

In September 1998, he completed the F.B.I.’s National Executive Course, studying with internationally recognized law enforcement leaders. 

He is a member of the community advisory group for the Centre for Addictions and Mental Health (CAMH). 

He is also a member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (I.A.C.P.), Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police (O.A.C.P), Organized Crime Committee, the Chief’s alternate to the Canadian Intelligence Service of Canada and Canadian Intelligence Service Ontario. 

He is the Chief’s Designate for Toronto’s Emergency Management Control Group which takes command in response to both Natural and Human Caused Disasters affective the City of Toronto.

Biographical profile of Barry King

Chief of Police

Chief Barry V. King’s 40-year career includes 6 years as chief of police for Brockville, 8 years as chief of Sault Ste. Marie, superintendent with Peel Regional Police and service with the Ontario Provincial Police and the Canadian Forces Military Police. 

Chief King is Chair of the Board of The Canadian Center on Substance Abuse, and serves as Co-Chair of the St. Lawrence College Police Foundations and Law & Security Advisory Board, and various other boards including Fore-Youth Brockville and the Ontario Police Proceeds of Crime Committee. 

Chief King Co-Chairs the Safe Communities Coalition of Brockville and District, which was granted accreditation by the World Health Organization for Brockville as the 4th W.H.O. Designated Safe Community in North America. 

Chief King was elected as Secretary-Treasurer to the Executive Board of The Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police, and served as Chair of the CACP Drug Abuse Committee.  He is Co-Founder and Former Co-Chair of the National Health and Enforcement in Partnership (HEP). 

Chief King is a recipient of the Ontario Medal for Police Bravery, the Addiction Research Foundation (Ontario) “Community Achievement Award” for Outstanding Leadership in the Development of Youth Drug and Alcohol Educational Programs, Canadian and Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police “Service Awards for Outstanding Contribution to the Advancement of Law Enforcement and the YMCA 2001 – Canada Peace Medal. 

He is a graduate of the 128th Session of the F.B.I. National Academy, F.B.I. Leeda Executive Program and has attended the Canadian Police College, Humber College of Applied Arts, Northwestern and Wilfred Laurier Universities and the Community Policing Management Program at Queens University. 

He is a strong advocate of interactive community policing depicted by the Brockville Police service motto:  “Partners for a Safe Community”. 

Chief King has been married for more than 39 years.  He and his wife enjoy 3 children and 5 grandchildren.  His youngest son, Kevin, is a first class constable with the Guelph Police Service, a 4th generation police officer in the family.

Biographical profile of Céline Mercier

Dr. Mercier is Associate Professor and research associate at the Psychosocial Research Unit at the Douglas Hospital. Dr. Mercier received her PhD in psychology from the University of Strasbourg. Her current research interests are: (1) evaluation of services for the severely mentally ill (including the "homeless"); (2) evaluation of services for alcohol and drug abuse; (3) quality of life as a criterion for evaluating services. She has contracts available for research depending on the field of interest.

Biographical profile of Serge Brochu,

Serge Brochu received his doctorate in psychology from the Université de Montréal in 1981. Since 1997 he has been a full professor with that university's Criminology Department. He is the author of the book Drogue et criminalité : une relation complexe (Presses de l'Université de Montréal; published as well by De Boeck (Belgium)), which describes his research over the past 10 years on the relationship between drugs and crime. In addition he worked with L. Guyon, M. Landry and J. Bergeron on publication of the book L'Évaluation des clientèles alcooliques et toxicomanes.

Biographical profile of Michel Landry

Michel Landry received his doctorate in psychology from the Université de Montréal in 1976. Since 1999 he has been an associate professor in that university's Psychology Department. In addition, he worked with L. Guyon, S. Brochu and J. Bergeron on publication of the book L'Évaluation des clientèles alcooliques et toxicomanes.

 Biographical profile of Steven van Hoogstraten

Steven van Hoogstraten is working in the Ministry of Justice since February 1999 as Director for International Criminal Affairs and Drug Policy, and acts as Deputy DG for International Affairs. Before that time he held positions in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (76-82) including a stay in Brussels at the Permanent Representation to the European Commission, the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (82-89), and the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (1989-1999). In that last capacity Steven van Hoogstraten was Director for Public Health, covering issues such as food safety, and alcohol. Steven van Hoogstraten was educated at the University of Groningen as a lawyer (European and international law) and lives in The Hague. He also was the Chairman of the Royal Dutch Cricket Board (1986-1997), and had frequent contacts with the UK cricket authorities in that role.

Biographical profile of Bob Keizer

Bob Keizer (1949) has been the Head of the Addiction Policy Division of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport of the Netherlands from 1992 till 2000. In this capacity he was a member of the management board of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction of the EU and he still is the Dutch Permanent Correspondent in the Pompidou Group of the Council of Europe. In previous positions he was a.o. in charge of Health Education, Mental health care and Consumer policy. He graduated in medical law at he University of Leiden in 1977.
At this moment he is a Drug Policy Advisor for the Minister of Health, especially charged with organizing a Scientific Conference on cannabis and the co-ordination of the National Drug Monitor. 

Biographical profile of Guy Ati Dion

Guy Ati Dion has been interested in the problem of drugs and substance abuse for more than fifteen years. After training as a psychotherapist specializing in substance abuse and working at a treatment centre in Holland during the 1980s, Mr. Dion returned to Quebec, having earned a Bachelor's Degree in Psychology from the Humaniversity, an international university in Holland. In Quebec, he pursued studies in criminology and substance abuse. He completed a multidisciplinary degree in human sciences in 1994 and a Master's Degree in Criminology in 1996. He is currently finishing a Doctorate in Criminology at the University of Montreal on Canadian drug policies. He is also pursuing a Master's Degree in Psychology at the Humaniversity in Holland. He published several studies on drug-related police and judicial practices for the Quebec Standing Committee on the Campaign against Drugs in 1997, 1999 and 2001, and for the journal Psychotropes in the spring of 2001. He has been the Director and Clinical Counsellor of a psychotherapy training centre in Quebec, Humaniversity Québec, since 1999.

Biographical profile of Jean-Michel Costes

Among other distinctions, Mr Costes holds a degree in demographic science from the Université Paris I and a master’s degree in sociology from the Université Paris V.  Since 1995, he has been the Director of the French Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (OFDT).  In 1993, he was the chargé de mission at the Délégation Générale à la Lutte contre la Drogue et la Toxicomanie, where he contributed to the collection, analyses and review of data and information about drugs and drug abuse.  In addition, he took part in setting up the French focal point of the REITOX (European information network on drugs and drug addictions) network and the French Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.  In 1991, he was the chargé de mission in the office of the deputy director of health studies and statistics.  In 1986, he was the chief of the Department of Health’s hospital statistics office, and in 1982 was responsible for the institutions for the disabled sector of the social action statistics office, Department of Social Affairs.

Biographical profile of Michel Kokoreff

Michel Kokoreff, born in Paris in 1959, is a sociologist and a lecturer at the Université de Lille 1 and the Institut d’Études Politiques de Paris.  He is a member of CLERSE (the Centre Lillois d’études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques) and an associate researcher with CESAMES (Centre de recherche psychotropes, santé mentale, société), the CNRS (Centre national de la recherche scientifique) laboratories.  A specialist in urban sociology and the sociology of drugs, he has published many articles in learned journals (Déviance et société, Sociologie et société, Sociétés contemporaines) and has also written two books:  Mondes de la drogue; Usages et trafics dans les quartiers, with D. Duprez, published in 2000 by Odile Jacob, Paris, and Société avec drogues.  Enjeux et limites (to be published by ERES), with C. Faugeron.

Biographical profile of Nicole Maestracci 

Nicole Maestracci was a lawyer until 1977, and became a magistrate in 1979. She has held a number of positions, including that of juvenile court judge in Melun (1979-1983) and sentence enforcement judge in Seine Saint Denis (1992-1996). She was the director of the correctional administration branch of the Department of Justice, the officer responsible for community service (1984-1987), and later, a technical advisor in the Office of the Keeper of the Seals (1988-1990). Counsel at the Paris Appeal Court since 1996, she was appointed Chair of the MILDT (Mission interministérielle de lutte contre la drogue et la toxicomanie) in June 1998.

Biographical profile of Dr. Richard G. Mathias

A native of British Columbia, Dr. Mathias was trained in at U of A in Edmonton where he was granted his MD in 1968, then moved to Calgary and Winnipeg where he completed a fellowship in Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases in 1975. He was then appointed, between 1975-83, to Newfoundland as a Field Epidemiologist, to Saskatchewan as Provincial Epidemiologist and to BC as Provincial Epidemiologist, Infectious Diseases. In 1983 he transferred to the Department Health Care and Epidemiology where he has attained the rank of Professor, Division of Public Health Practice. Along the way he has published over seventy peer reviewed papers and given numerous lectures and talks. In 1989-90 he was on sabbatical to the Institute for Medical Research in Malaysia and in 1995 he accepted an interchange position with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control in Ottawa as director of a newly formed Bureau of Surveillance and Field Epidemiology. He returned to UBC in September 1997. He was also the Scientific Editor of the Canadian Journal of Public Health to May 1998. He was a PAHO/WHO advisor to Suriname in October/November of 1998. He has given evidence to the Kreever Commission and before the Supreme Courts in BC and Ontario as an expert witness in public health matters. Until his sabbatical this year he was the Chair, Division of Public Health Practice, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, UBC and the Director of the Community Medicine Residency Program. His sabbatical project is to write a monograph on the public health approach to drugs.

Biographical profile of Dr. Colin R. Mangham, PhD.

Dr. Colin Mangham brings 22 years experience in substance abuse prevention in Canada to his position as Director of Prevention Source BC. He holds B.Ed and MA degrees in Science Education and a PhD in School and Community Health. He has played key roles in developing many prevention resources for children, youth, parents and communities, including Your Life, Your Choice, Making Decisions, Your Choice Our Chance, Parents as Preventers, By Parents For Parents, Ready or Not. He has authored or co-authored numerous federal and provincial reports, including Making It Fit: Matching Prevention Strategies to Community Needs; Prevention in Action; Evaluating Prevention Projects and Programs; Substance Abuse and Mental Health: Exploring the Links; Resilience in Health Promotion; A Study of Resilience in Communities; and Best Practices in Prevention, Promotion, and Early Support for Familes and Children. Dr. Mangham has published several journal articles on research in substance abuse, resilience, and in community health promotion.

From 1992 to 1996 Colin worked as a professor of health education at Dalhousie University in Halifax, where he taught graduate and undergraduate classes in health promotion, drugs in society, health education planning, biostatistics and epidemiology, and chronic disease. Also, he co-investigated a number of research contracts in health promotion, largely in the area of resilience in individuals, families, and communities. He remains active in the research and development community, and is an adjunct professor at Dalhousie University and a Faculty Associate at the Institute for Health Promotion Research at UBC.

As Director of Prevention Source BC, the provincial centre for support and resources in substance misuse prevention funded by the Ministry of Health Services. Dr. Mangham oversees a variety of services in prevention resource development, training and information gathering and dissemination.

He and his spouse Sharon are parents of four adult daughters and live in Langley, BC.

Biographical profile of Dr. Bendikt J. Fischer


Dept. of Public Health Sciences
University of Toronto
McMurrich Bldg., 109C
Toronto, Ont.
M5S1A8, Canada
tel. 416/946-5792 or 416/535-8501 x4502
fax. 416/978-2087 or 416/595-6899
e-mail. Benedikt.Fischer@Utoronto.ca


Since 2001 New Investigator, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)

Since 1999 Asst. Professor, Dept. of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

Since 2000 Asst. Professor (cross appt.), Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto

Since 1997 Research Scientist, Clinical, Social, Prevention and Health Policy Research Department, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario

1999 – 2000 Drug Law and Policy Research Fellow, Open Society Institute, New York

1996 – 1999 Chair, Drug Policy Research Group, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health/Addiction Research Foundation



1993-1998 PH.D. studies; Criminology; Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto

1990-1993 M.A.studies, Social, Political and Legal Sciences; Konstanz University, Germany, and York University, Toronto

1987-1990 B.A. studies, Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, Konstanz University, Germany



International Drug Law and Policy; Sociology of Addiction; Harms, Costs, Treatment of Illicit Drug/Opiate Use; Criminal Justice System; Policing and Social Control; Sociology of Law; Interdisciplinary Methods


Addiction Research, Canadian Journal of Criminology, Canadian Journal of Public Health, Canadian Medical Association Journal, International Journal of Drug Policy, Journal of Urban Health, Policy Studies, Substance Use and Misuse, Sucht, Suchttherapie, and more


Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Connaught Fund, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Open Society Institute

Biographical profile of Perry Kendall

I have a 25 year career in public health, have served as medical health officer for the cities of Victoria and Toronto as well as the Province of British Columbia. In addition it was my privilege to act as President and CEO of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario from 1995 to 1998. During that time I was able to meet and have discussions with some of the most eminent researchers in psychoactive substances, addictions and social policy in North America and indeed Europe and Australia.

Biographical profile of Dr Mary Lynch

Dr. Mary Lynch is an Associate Professor in the Departments of Psychiatry, Anesthesia and Pharmacology at Dalhousie University. She is the Director of Research at the Pain Management Unit at the Queen Elizabeth Health Sciences Centre in Halifax.

Dr. Lynch is a Dalhousie Clinical Research Scholar and Director of the CIHR-funded Canadian Consortium for the Investigation of Cannabinoids in Human Therapeutics. Her research focuses on the development of novel agents in the treatment of neuropathic pain. She has established collaborations with colleagues in rehabilitation medicine in the area of spinal cord injury, neurosurgery in the area of spinal cord stimulation and chronobiology in the area of interaction between chronic pain and sleep.

She is also developing collaborations in emergency room treatment of pain and is spearheading the development of a national clinical trials network in her role as Director of the Canadian Consortium for the Investigation of Cannabinoids.

Biographical profile of Harold Kalant

Since 1959, Dr. Kalant has engaged in biomedical and behavioural research on alcohol, cannabis, benzodiazepines, opioids and other drugs of dependence. He is currently Professor Emeritus in Pharmacology (University of Toronto) and Research Director Emeritus (Biobehavioural Research) at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Dr. Kalant is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and is the First Honorary Fellow of the British Society for the Study of Addiction.

He has acted as a consultant to numerous national and international bodies, including Health Canada, Justice Canada, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Australian National Drug Strategy. He chaired the committee that conducted the most recent WHO effort review of cannabis and is the senior editor of the published volume "The Health Effects of Cannabis".

Biographical profile of Mohamed Ben Amar

Mohamed Ben Amar is pharmacist, specialist in clinical biology and pharmacology. He graduated from Université Paul Sabatier in Toulouse (France) and Montreal University. Mr. Amar’s studies concentrate on drugs affecting the central nervous system and he also conducts medical analyses in laboratory and interpretations of biochemical and other tests. He teaches pharmacology and toxicology and the University of Montreal.

Mr. Ben Amar has published extensively on alcohol and psychoactive substances. He has also been an expert witness in numerous trials before Quebec courts. He is currently preparing a book on the pharmacology of psychoactive substances for publication in the Fall 2001.

Biographical profile of John P. Morgan

Dr. Morgan began his academic career in pharmacology teaching and drug investigation at the University of Rochester College Medicine in 1971. His work focuses on the clinical pharmacology of alcohol and misused psychoactive drugs. In addition to his position as Medical Professor in the Pharmacology Department of the School of Biomedical Education and the City University of New York medical School, Dr. Morgan is Adjunct Professor of Pharmacology and Medicine at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine.

Dr. Morgan has served as a consultant to the pharmaceutical industry, the Food and Drug Administration, the Drug Enforcement Administration, state medical boards and federal and state public defenders. Since 1985, he has frequently consulted with unions on the issues of workplace urine testing for drugs and as part of analyzing a variety of medico-legal cases, has often testified for individuals who claimed that their use of marijuana was based on medical need.

In 2000, with Lynn Zimmer, Dr. Morgan received the Lester Greenspoon Award for Achievement in the Field of Marijuana Law Reform from the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws.

Biographical profile of Dr. Peter Cohen

Dr Peter Cohen first entered the field of drug research in 1980 by way of a course in sociology on the 'history of social problems'. In his view, human construction of cultures and societies can be partly understood by studying what a society defines as a problem and why. Since then he has studied the so called drug problem as one of the many 'social constructions' of western culture, based on complex prejudice and ideology. His main interest is to conduct empirical research on typical drug myths such as those relating to addiction to cocaine or to cannabis as a stepping stone to more 'dangerous' drugs. Large-scale epidemiological drug use research  in the city of Amsterdam and later in the Netherlands as a whole have been conducted. Dr Cohen is currently Director of the Centre for Drug Research at he School of Social Science, University of Amsterdam, doing research funded mostly by the Dutch Ministry of Health.

Among his numerous publications on drugs (which may be found at the CEDRO website www.frw.uva.nl/cedro ) are : Drugs as a social construct (1984), Re-thinking drug control policy: Historical perspectives and conceptual tools (1993), The case of the two Dutch drug policy commissions. An exercise in harm reduction 1968-1976. (1994), Cannabis use, a stepping stone to other drugs? The case of Amsterdam (1997), Shifting the main purposes of drug control: From suppression to regulation of use. Reduction of risks as the new focus for drug policy (1998) and Is the addiction doctor the voodoo priest of Western man? (2000). 

Biographical profile of Alain Labrousse

Alain Labrousse completed a dissertation on the sociology of development at the Institut d’Étude du Développement Économique et Social (IEDES) in Paris in 1996, and a doctoral dissertation in French studies at the Université de Bordeaux in 1974. In 1990, he founded the Observatoire géopolitique des drogues in Paris. For the last ten years, this organization has produced studies and reports on the international situation with respect to drug production and trafficking. He is currently a chargé de mission at the Observatoire français des drogues et des toxicomanies, a French monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction in Paris, where he is organizing an assessment mission on the cannabis crop situation in Morocco (June) and an assessment mission on anti-drug cooperation in Bolivia and Peru (July), among other things. He has led similar missions in countries around the world (Afghanistan, Vietnam, Senegal, Central and Western Africa). His principal publications include :

2000 : Les drogues, un marché de dupes. Paris, Éditions Alternatives

1996 : Géopolitique et Géostratégies des drogues. Paris : Économisa (en collaboration avec Michel Koutouzis)

1991 : La drogue, L’Argent et les Armes. Paris : Fayard

1985 : Coca Coke. Paris : La Découverte (en collaboration avec Alain Delpirou)

Biographical profile of Dr. Jurgen Rehm

Dr. Jürgen Rehm finished his studies in Psychology and Methodology at Mannheim University with a Ph.D. After working for the German Federal Health Office for several years as a vice department head for epidemiology of risk behaviour, he specialized in substance use and addictions. He worked for the Swiss Institute for Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems (Lausanne, Switerland) as a section head for epidemiology and surveys, and then for the Addiction Research Fundation (ARF) in several senior positions in research and administration. In parallel, Dr. Rehm had different university appointments at the University of Toronto and the University for the Applied Sciences in Hamburg, Germany, and acted as consultant for several WHO projects. Currently, Dr. Rehm is director of the Addiction Research Institute at Zurich, Switzerland, a research institution with staff of about 30 affiliated with the University of Zurich. He also serves as a Senior Scientist for the Centre for Addicition and Mental Health in Toronto, and is cross-appointed to the University of Toronto, Public Health Sciences Department (full, status only).

Biographical profile of Mr. Eric Single

Eric Single (Ph.D., Sociology, Columbia U., 1973) is Professor of Public Health Sciences at the University of Toronto, Research Associate for the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Honorary Professor at Curtin University in Perth, Australia, and president of his own consulting firm. He has 29 years of experience in research on addictions issues and has authored or co-authored 18 books, 27 book chapters, 60 journal articles, and numerous reports and other publications. Dr. Single was the first Research Director of the CCSA and founding Director of the Collaborative Program on addictions at the University of Toronto. He has been a participant or director of eight  WHO projects. In 1996 he completed a major study estimating morbidity, mortality and economic costs attributable to alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs in Canada. In 1997, Dr. Single conducted an evaluation of Australia's National Drug Strategy on behalf of the Australian government. More recently, Dr. Single co-authored the WHO Alcohol Monitoring Guidelines and he coordinated a major review underpinning new drinking   guidelines for the Australia. He is currently evaluating the Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand and conducting a survey of problem gambling in Ontario. He chairs the CCSA National Working Group on Addictions Policy and regularly consults with international agencies on methodology, epidemiological monitoring and policy issues.

Biographical profile of Andrew D. Hathaway, Ph.D.

Andrew D. Hathaway, Ph.D. is a sociologist in the Department of Social, Prevention and Health Policy Research at Toronto’s Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. His primary research interests include recreational drug use patterns and correlates, and analysis of the debates informing legal-political and health policy responses. Currently he is investigating career drug use trajectories among experienced cannabis users in the city of Toronto. Dr. Hathaway is also an instructor in the sociology of deviance and social control at U. of T. and McMaster University.

Biographical profile of Pat Erickson, Ph.D.

Patricia Erickson has been at the Addiction Research Foundation [ARF] since 1973, a Senior Scientist there since 1988, and is currently a Senior Research Scientist with the amalgamated Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. She is also an Adjunct Full Professor and member of the Graduate Faculty in the Department of Sociology at the University of Toronto. She completed a three year term as Director of the Collaborative Graduate Program in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Psychoactive Substances at U of T, and continues to teach there. She received her doctorate from the University of Glasgow, Scotland in 1983 in Criminology and Social Administration.

Her authored and co-authored books include The Steel Drug: Cocaine and Crack in Perspective (1987;1994), and Cannabis Criminals: The Social Effects of Punishment on Drug Users (1980). She is also co-editor of Illicit Drugs in Canada: A Risky Business (1988) and Windows on Science (1992). Her most recent book is an edited collection, Harm Reduction: A New Direction for Drug Policies and Programs (1997) published by the University of Toronto Press . She is author or co-author of over 60 articles and chapters for scientific books or journals, and has been invited to speak at many professional and community meetings.

In 1996, she received the Alfred R. Lindesmith Award for achievement in scholarship and writing from the Drug Policy Foundation of Washington, DC.

Erickson currently is co-Principal Investigator of a National Institute on Drug Abuse grant for US$1.2 million to study youth, drugs and violence in Toronto and Philadelphia.

Biographical profile of Mr. Bruce Alexander,

Mr. Bruce Alexander has been professor of the Department of Psychology at the University Simon Fraser for the last 18 years and is Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association. Mr. Fraser has a Ph.D in Comparative Psychology from the University of Wisconsin . Internationaly known for his reseach on drugs, Professor Alexander has been interested for the last 30 years on many htmects of drugs consumption and their effects, but has focussed his research particularly on drug addiction issues. He has studied and published extensively on drug addiction since the early seventies.

Biographical profile of Marie-Andrée Bertrand 

Marie-Andrée Bertrand holds a doctorate in criminology from the University of California at Berkeley. She is Professor Emeritus of criminology at the Université de Montréal. From 1969 to 1973, she was a member of the Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs (LeDain Commission). She has written a number of studies and publications on drug issues. Among the most recent of these are: "La politique des drogues", appearing in the November 2000 issue of Psychotropes; "Le droit de la drogue comme instrument de mondialisation", in Globalization and Legal Cultures, Onati Papers, Onati Summer Course, Spain, 1997; "Réflexions sur la décriminalisation de l’intervention (auprès des consommateurs de drogues illicites)", in Europa, Ta Jeunesse t’interpelle, Aix-les-Bains, 1997; and "La situation (du droit de la drogue) en Amérique du Nord", in Drogues et droits de l’homme (ed. F. Caballero), Paris, 1992.

Biographical profile of Eugene Oscapella

Eugene Oscapella, barrister and solicitor, Ottawa, Canada. Mr. Oscapella completed undergraduate studies in economics at the University of Toronto in 1974 and received his Bachelor of Laws Degree from the University of Ottawa in 1977. He obtained his Master of Laws degree from the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1979. He was call to the Ontario Bar in 1980.

From 1980 to 81, Mr. Oscapella served as a commission counsel with the McDonald Commission of Inquiry into the RCMP. From 1982 to 85, he was Director of Legislation and Law Reform for the Canadian Bar Association. Since 1985, Mr. Oscapella has been an independent advisor to government and private sector interests on Canadian legislative and public policy issues.

Mr. Oscapella was associated with the Law Reform Commission of Canada over a 14 year period, and was the first chairman of that body's Drug Policy Group. Mr. Oscapella is a founding member of the Canadian Foundation for Drug Policy, an independent organization created to examine alternatives to Canada's drug laws. For several years he sat on the policy committee of the Canadian Criminal Justice Association. He lectures and has been published widely in Canada and abroad on drug policy issues.

Biographical profile of Line Beauchesne

Doctor of Political Science, specializing in jurisprudence and government, and associate professor in the Department of Criminology of the University of Ottawa, Line Beauchesne is the author of many briefs and articles as well as three books on the prevention of drug abuse: (with Éric Giguère) Les sports et la drogue (l994), Légaliser les drogues pour mieux en prévenir les abus (1991) and L'abus des drogues, les programmes de prévention chez les jeunes (1986). She was the cofounder and first chair of MAGE (Mouvement pour des alternatives à la guerre à la drogue), is a member of GREPO (Groupe de recherche sur la production de l'ordre), is a founding member of the Canadian Foundation for Drug Policy and has been, for many years, a member of the board of AITQ (Association des Intervenants en toxicomanies du Québec).

Biographical Profile of Neil Boyd

Neil Boyd is a Professor in the School of Criminology at Simon Fraser University. He is the author of five books, several dozen academic articles and many articles for the popular press. He has written widely on the subjects of drugs and violence. His 1991 book, High Society: Legal and Illegal Drugs in Canada, was a critical assessment of drug control policies, both historically and within the present era. Professor Boyd has consulted archival records and interviewed police officers, illicit drug dealers and users, academics and policy-makers in the course of his work in

this realm. His most recent book was published by Douglas & McIntyre this summer: The Beast Within: why men are violent.

Biographical profile of Marie-Andrée Bertrand

Marie-Andrée Bertrand holds a doctorate in criminology from the University of California at Berkeley. She is Professor Emeritus of criminology at the Université de Montréal. From 1969 to 1973, she was a member of the Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs (LeDain Commission). She has written a number of studies and publications on drug issues. Among the most recent of these are: "La politique des drogues", appearing in the November 2000 issue of Psychotropes; "Le droit de la drogue comme instrument de mondialisation", in Globalization and Legal Cultures, Onati Papers, Onati Summer Course, Spain, 1997; "Réflexions sur la décriminalisation de l’intervention (auprès des consommateurs de drogues illicites)", in Europa, Ta Jeunesse t’interpelle, Aix-les-Bains, 1997; and "La situation (du droit de la drogue) en Amérique du Nord", in Drogues et droits de l’homme (ed. F. Caballero), Paris, 1992

Biographical profile of Dr. Zoccolillo

Dr. Zoccolillo is Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at McGill University and the Montreal Children's Hospital. He is also a member of the Research Group on Social Maladaptation in Children, an inter-university research group directed by Richard Tremblay, Ph. D. Dr. Zoccolillo is currently the principal investigator on two projects funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research: 1) The natural history and consequences of alcohol and drug use, problem use, and dependence from childhood to young adulthood in a community sample; 2) Prenatal maternal smoking and offspring

conduct problems in the second year of life: modeling the effects of maternal and paternal conduct problems; maternal responsivity; and fetal growth retardation. His main research interests are the development of antisocial behavior and substance use disorders in children and adolescents.

Dr. Zoccolillo received his psychiatry training at Washington University in St. Louis and did a NIMH funded post-doctoral fellowship in child and developmental psychiatry with Professor Michael Rutter at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, England. He joined the faculty at McGill University in 1992 and is citizen of the USA and Canada.

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