SENATE SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE BOREAL FOREST

COMPETING REALITIES: The Boreal Forest at Risk


NOTES


1- Our Forest, Our Future, Report of the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development, 1999, Foreword.

2- Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, The State of Canada’s Forest: The People’s Forest, 1997-98, p.5

3- P. Myre, "Changing Forest Values, Forest Legislation and Management in Canada", The Forestry Chronicle, Volume 74, No. 2, March-April 1998, p. 237

4- T. Rotherham, The Management of Canada’s Forests, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Sept. 18, 1996, p.3

5- Myre (1998), Op. Cit.

6- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, National Forest Strategy, 1998

7- Canada Forest Accord, 1998

8- D. Bryant, et al, The Last Frontier Forests : Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., 1997, p. 12

9- C. McLaren, Op. Cit., p. 10

10- P. Angelstam,"Forest Certification, biodiversity and forest management - the Swedish experience." Sustainable Forest Management Network Conference, Edmonton, Feb. 14-17, 1999

11- Y. Hardy, Op. Cit., p.1:22

12- Y. Bergeron, Universite du Quebec en Abitibi-Temiscamingue, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 9, Oct. 28, 1998, p.9:5

13- S. Nilsson, Presentation at Sustainable Forest Management Network Conference, Edmonton, Feb. 16, 1999

14- R. Thomas, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 13, Nov 16, 1998, p. 19.

15- J.B. Stelfox (ed.),Relationships between Stand Age, Stand Structure, and Biodiversity in Aspen Mixedwood Forests in Alberta.,1995, p.1

16- D.W.Schindler, "A dim future for boreal waters and landscapes." BioScience vol.48, 1998, pp.157-164

17- W. Thornton, Director, Forest Management Branch, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 7, October 9, 1998, p. 7:25

18- Lieffers, V.J. And P.M. Woodard, "Silvicultural systems for maintaining marten and fisher in the boreal forest," p. 411 In: Proulx, G., H.N. Bryant and P.M. Woodard, eds., Martes: Taxonomy, Ecology, Techniques, and Management.,1997

19- Ibid.

20- Weir, R.D. And A. S. Harestad, "Landscape-level selectivity by fishers in south-central British Columbia," p.252 In: Proulx, G., H.N. Bryant and P.M. Woodard, (eds) Op. Cit.

21- L. McDonald,"Relationships between northern flying squirrels and stand age and structure in aspen mixedwood forests in Alberta," p.227 In: Stelfox, J. B. (ed.), Op.Cit.

22- J. Schieck and M. Nietfeld,"Bird species richness and abundance in relation to stand age and structure in aspen mixedwood forests in Alberta," p.115 In: Stelfox, J. B. (ed.), Op. Cit.

23- L. Crampton and R.M.R. Barclay, "Relationships between bats and stand age and structure in aspen mixedwood forests in Alberta," p.211 In: Stelfox, J. B. (ed.). Op. Cit.

24- J. B. Stelfox, Op. Cit., p. 4

25- J. Snyder, Lichen Regeneration in Disturbed Caribou Winter Range Forest in West-Central Alberta, Grande Prairie Regional College, p.3

26- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management in Canada Technical Report 1997, p. 11

27- Ducks Unlimited, Wetlands of the Forest, n.d., p.2

28- Y. Hardy, Assistant Deputy Minister, Canadian Forestry Service, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 1, February 19, 1998

29- S. Wasel, Alberta Pacific Forest Industries Inc., Presentation to the Senate Sub-Committee on Boreal Forests, February 18, 1999

30- R.M. Siltanen, M.J. Apps, S.C. Zoltai, R.M. Mair and W.L. Strong, A Soil Profile and Organic Carbon Data Base for Canadian Forest and Tundra Mineral Soils., 1997, p.1

31- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management in Canada. Technical Report 1997, 1997, p.60

32- W.A. Kurz et al, "Global climate change: Disturbance regimes and biospheric feedbacks of temperate and boreal forests", in G.M. Woodwell et al (eds), Biospheric Feedback in the Global Climate System: Will the Warming Speed the Warming?, New York, 1995, p. 119-133

33- R. Street, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 5, Sept. 28, 1998, p.5:6

34- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Op. Cit., p. 35

35- Y. Hardy, Op. Cit., p. 1:17

36- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Op. Cit., p. 29

37- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Op. Cit., p. 61

38- M. Apps, Senior Research Scientist, Canadian Forest Services, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 2 (35th Parliament), March 20, 1997, p. 2:9

39- R. Street, Op. Cit., p. 5:5

40- Ibid., p. 5:9

41- Ibid., p. 5:9

42- Ibid., p. 5:17

43- D. Schindler, (1998) Op. Cit., p. 160

44- D. Schindler, Presentation to Sustaining the Boreal Forest Network Conference, Edmonton, February 17, 1999

45- W. Thornton, Op. Cit., p. 7:33

46- C. McLaren, "Heartwood," Equinox vol.53 cited in R.Thomas, The Final Frontier: Protecting Landscape and Biological Diversity Within Alberta’s Boreal Forest Natural Region, 1990, p.10

47- D. Herbert, Past Director, Environmental Resources, Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries, Presentation to the Task Force on the Boreal Forest, Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, November 4, 1996

48- R. Thomas, Op. Cit., p. 13:6

49- Ibid.

50- D. Schindler, memo to B. Robson dated February 21, 1999

51- R. Thomas, Op. Cit., p. 13:6

52- D. Sullivan, North American Coordinator, Taiga Rescue Network, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 13, Nov.16, 98, p.13:11

53- C. Langlois, Chairman, James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forestof the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 17, December 2, 1998, p.17:5

54- T.Gray, Op. Cit., p. 13:15

55- Ibid., p.13:14

56- R. Thomas, Op. Cit., p. 13:9

57- D. Sullivan, Op. Cit., p.13:12

58- Ibid., p. 13:11

59- Ibid.

60- G. Hanna, Presentation to Task Force on the Boreal Forest, Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Edmonton, November 5, 1996

61- D. Sullivan, Op. Cit., p. 13:24

62- T. Rotherham, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Op. Cit., p. 10:20

63- V.J. Lieffers and P.M. Woodard, Op. Cit.

64- Y. Hardy, Op. Cit., p.1:27

65- Y. Hardy, Op. Cit., p.1:27

66- Canadian Forest Service,.The State of Canada’s Forests, 1997

67- R. Symmes, Coordinator, Partnership for Public Lands, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 7, October 9, 1998, p.7:10

68- For example see E. May, At the Cutting Edge: The Crisis in Canada’s Forests, 232 p:5

69- For example T. Gray, Op. Cit., p. 13:14; D. Coon, Executive Director, Conservation council of New Brunswick, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 12, November 4, 1998, p. 12:32

70- W. Thornton, Op. Cit., p. 7:25

71- G. Lenz, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 14, November 18, 1998, p. 14:25

72- G. Lenz, Ibid.; D. Schindler, Op. Cit. p.13:30

73- R. Street, Op. Cit., p. 5:12

74- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Op. Cit., p. 6

75- Canadian Forest Service, The State of Canada’s Forests - the People’s Forests 1997-1998, 1998, p. 35

76- S. Gauthier, A. Leduc and Y. Bergeron, ‘Forest dynamics modelling under a natural fire cycle: a tool to define natural mosaic diversity in forest management.’ Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 39:417 - 434

77- Canadian Forest Service (1998), Op. Cit., p. 4

78- S. Wasel, Op. Cit; Rotherham, Op. Cit., p. 10:21

79- T. Rotherham, Op. Cit., p. 10:38

80- D. Neave, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 14, November 18, 1998, p. 14:13

81- Ibid.

82- D. Chown, Director of Production, Fibre, Abitibi Consolidated, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 6, October 8, 1998, p.6:42

83- Forestry Canada and Manitoba Natural Resources, Manitoba’s Forests, p. 12

84- D. Prebble, Woodlands Manager, Repap Inc., Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 12, Nov.4, 1998 p.12:51

85- R. Clowater, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 11, Nov. 3, 1998 p. 11:14; Robert Ruttan, Consultant, Personal Communication, Feb. 1999

86- T. Rotherham, Op. Cit., p. 10:37

87- Lieffers, V.J. And J.A.Beck Jr., "A semi-natural approach to mixedwood management in the prairie provinces," Forestry Chronicle , vol. 70, 1994, p. 262

88- R. Clowater, Op. Cit., p. 11:14

89- L. Bouthillier, Faculté de foresterie et de géomatique, Université de Laval, Proceedings fothe Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 17, p. 17:14

90- Ibid.

91- D. Barron, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 10, November 2, 1998, p.10:9

92- C. Langlois, Op. Cit., p. 17:18

93- G. Lenz, Op. Cit., p. 14:25

94- Millar Western, Company Brochure. 1999.

95- D. Barron, Op. Cit., p. 10:10

96- Ibid.

97- R. St-Amour, VP, Forestry Supplies, Tembec Inc., Forest Products Group, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 9, October 28, 1998, p.9:36

98- D. Barron, Op. Cit., p.10:12

99- D. Coon, Executive Director, Conservation Council of New Brunswick, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 12, November 4, 1998, p.12:40

100- M. Martell, Manager of Planning, Millar Western Pulp Ltd.(Meadow Lake), Meeting with Senate Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest, November 7, 1996

101- Lieffers, V.J. And J.A.Beck Jr., Op. Cit., p.261

102- Ibid., p. 262

103- This sentiment was expressed by many participants at the Sustainable Forest Network Conference in Edmonton on February 17, 1999

104- Blue Ribbon Panel, National Forest Strategy, ‘Sustainable Forests: A Canadian Commitment,’ Mid-term Evaluation, 1994 .

105- D. Lindenas,"Saskatchewan Status Report, " In: Natural Resources Canada, Timber Supply in Canada- Challenges and Choices, Conference Proceedings, Nov. 16-18, 1994, p. A-100

106- Ibid.

107- T. Rotherham, Op. Cit., p.10:18

108- S. Smith, "Perspective on western Canada’s timber supply," In: Natural Resources Canada, Op. Cit., (1994), p.96

109- R. St-Amour, Op. Cit., p. 9:41

110- D. Coon, Op. Cit., p.12:43-44

111- C.Godbout in "Perspective on eastern Canada’s timber supply," In: Natural Resources Canada Op. Cit., (1994)  p. 81

112- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers. (1997) Op. Cit. p.4

113- Blue Ribbon Panel, Op. Cit.

114- W. Thornton, Op. Cit., p. 7:28

115- Y. Bergeron, Professor, Sustainable Forestry, Univeriste du Quebec en Abitibi-Temiscamingue, Op. Cit., p.9:6

116- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Op. Cit. p.17

117- Ibid., p.8

118- C. Cassidy et al, ‘Winter responses of forest birds to habitat corridors and gaps,’ Conservative Ecology, (on line)

119- Tilman et al. (1994) cited in Thomas (1998)

120- R. Ruttan, Consultant, PersonalCommunication, Feb. 1999

121- D. Schidler, Killam Professor of Ecology, University of Alberta, Presentation to the Task Force on the Boreal Forest, Senate Standing Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Edmonton, November 6, 1999.

122- D. Schindler, Op. Cit., p. 13

123- G. Swanson, Director General, Habitat Management and Environmental Science, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 3, October 6, 1998,  p. 3:13

124- Ibid., p. 3:11

125- Prebble, Op. Cit., p. 12:54

126- Blue Ribbon Panel, Op. Cit., p. 3-5

127- W.Thornton, Op. Cit., p.7:26; R. Clowater, Op. Cit., p 11:13

128- D. Hebert, Speech to Sustainable Forest Management Network Conference, Edmonton, February 17, 1999.

129- Blue Ribbon Panel for the National Forest Strategy, Final Evaluation Report, 1997, p. 1-10

130- P. Demarsh, Canadian Federation of Woodlot Owners, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 11, November 3, 1998, p. 11:45

131- D. Neave, Op. Cit., 14:18

132- P. Demarsh, Op. Cit., p.11:46

133- Ibid.

134- Canadian Forest Service, The State of Canada’s Forests: The People’s Forests, 1997 1998, p.41

135- Ibid., p.43

136- A. Clark, President, New Brunswick Federation of Woodlot Owners, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 11, November 3, 1998, p11:45

137- For example, D. Schindler, p.13:38

138- R. Clowater, Op. Cit., p.11:10

139- P. Demarsh, Op. Cit., p. 11:47

140- R. Street, Op. Cit., p. 5:10

141- P. Demarsh, Op. Cit., p. 11:48

142- Ibid.

143- Hon. R. Goodale, Minister of Natural Resources in Proceedings of House of Commons Standing Committee on Natural Resources and Government Operations, May 6, 1999.

144- P. DeMarsh, letter dated 5 Jan 1999 to Hon. Paul Martin, Minister of Finance

145- L. Riley, Executive Counsellor, Ontario Professional Foresters Association, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 10, November 2, 1998, p. 45

146- Senate of Canada, Standing Senate Committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources, Protecting Places and People: Conserving Canada’s Natural Heritage, 1996, p. 7

147- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, National Forest Strategy 1998-2003. Sustainable Forests, 1998

148- World Wildlife Fund Canada, ‘Conservation Lands in Canada’, Endangered Spaces Progress Report, March 98-99

149- Government of Ontario, "Ontario’s Living Legacy - Backgrounders." April 15, 1999, Ontario Government Website

150- T. Belcourt, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture & Forestry, Issue 7, October 9, 1998. P.7:45

151- P. Lee, World Wildlife Fund Canada, personal communication, June 1999

152- K. McNamee, Canadian Nature Federation, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 14, November 18, 1998, p.14:4

153- Ibid., p.14:14

154- Parks Canada, State of the Parks, 1997 Report, 1998

155- K. McNamee, Op. Cit., p. 14:

156- Ibid.

157- D. Schindler, Op. Cit., p. 13 :39

158- D. Schindler, Presentation to Task Force on the Boreal Forest, Senate Standing Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Nov. 6, 1998

159- R. Thomas, Op. Cit., p. 13 :8

160- K. McNamee, Op. Cit., p. 14 :7

161- T. Quinney, Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 7, October 7, 1998, p. 7 :36

162- D. Barron, Op. Cit., p. 10 :14

163- T Belcourt, President, Métis Nation of Ontario, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 16, November 25, 1998, p. 16:4

164- T.M. Beckley and B.H. Hirsch. "Subsistence and non-industrial forest use in the lower Liard Valley," Northern Forestry Centre Information Report NOR-X-352, Canadian Forest Service, 1997, p.6

165- P. Smith, "Aboriginal Participation in Forest Management: Not Just Another Stakeholder," NAFA Position Paper. National Aboriginal Forestry Association, 1995, p.3

166- Chief George Kakeway, Ontario Environmental Assessment Board, "Reasons for Decision and Decision: Class Environmental Assessment by the Ministry of Natural Resources for Timber Management on Crown Lands in Ontario,"1994, p. 346

167- Ibid.

168- S. Gull, Director General, Cree Nation of Waswapini, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 9, October 28, 1998, p. 9:59

169- S. Ginnish, Forestry Officer, Eel Ground First Nation, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 11, November 3, 1998, p. 11:34

170- Fred and Margaret Wolf, pers. com., cited in Nalbach-Ruttan, 1999. Excerpt from Halfway River First Nation, internal documents, 1996, 1998. Quoted by permission

171- T. Belcourt, Op. Cit., p. 16:4

172- J. Webb, Manager, Intergovernmental Affairs, Little Red River Cree Nation, Informal presentation to Task Force on Boreal Forest of Senate Standing Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, November 5, 1996

173- S. Ginnish, Op. Cit, p.11:32

174- Ibid., p. 11:34

175- Beckley and Hirsch, Op. Cit., p.4

176- Ibid., p. iii

177- Ibid., p. 20

178- M. Anderson, Presentation made to Task Force on the Boreal Forest, Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, November 9, 1996

179- Institute on Governance, "Exploring the Relationship Between Aboriginal Peoples and the Canadian Forest Industry: Some Industry Perspectives," 1998, p.6.

180- Auditor-General’s Report, cited in P. Smith, "Funding Mechanisms for First Nation Forest-Based Economic Development," 1998, p.6

181- H. Bombay, Executive Director, National Aboriginal Forestry Association, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 15, November 23, 1998, p.15:15

182- S. Ginnish, Op. Cit, p. 11:18

183- H. Bombay, Personal Communication, June 5, 1999

184- H. Bombay, Op. Cit., p. 15:14

185- K. Augustine, Forestry Advisor, Big Cove First Nation, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 12, November 4, 1998, p. 12:63

186- Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, vol. 2, part 2, p. 641

187- S. Ginnish, Op. Cit., p. 11:24

188- Mistik Management Ltd, company brochure

189- Elizabeth May, At the Cutting Edge: the Crisis in Canada’s Forests, 1998, p.167

190- M. Anderson, Op. Cit.

191- H. Bombay, Op.Cit., p. 15:19

192- Institute on Governance, Op. Cit., p. vii

193- R. St-Amour, Op. Cit., p.37

194- R. Groves, Chief Forester, Malette Division, Tembec, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 6, October 8, 1998, p. 6:40

195- Alberta Pacific Forest Industries Inc., n.d., Aboriginal Affairs Management Guide

196- F. Cook, Vice-President, International Trade and Government Relations, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 10, November 2, 1998, p. 10:15

197- R. Groves, Op. Cit., p. 6:40

198- H. Bombay, Op. Cit., p. 15:14

199- Ibid., p. 15:11

200- P. Smith, Op. Cit., p. 1

201- Ibid., p. 3

202- Ibid., pp. 9-12

203- L. Bouthillier, Op., Cit., p.11

204- S. Ginnish, Op. Cit., p. 11:16

205- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management in Canada. Technical Report,1997, p. 106

206- T. Belcourt, Op. Cit., p. 16:8

207- D. Bernatchez, Secretary of the James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue17, December 2, 1998, p. 17:20

208- Delgamuukw vs. British Columbia, (1997), 3 S.C.R., 108 (QL) at para. 168

209- National Aboriginal Forestry Association, Forest Land and Resources for Aboriginal People, An intervention submitted to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1993, p. 9

210- Ibid.

211- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, National Forest Strategy 1998-20003 : Sustainable Forests, 1998, p. 34

212- Ibid.

213- Ibid, p. 34-36

214- Blue Ribbon Panel, Final Report, p. 7-5 to 7-8

215- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Op. Cit., p.35

216- P. Smith, Registered Professional Forester and Senior Advisor, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 4, (35th Parliament) April 10,1997, p .4:6.

217- Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Op. Cit., p. 10:6

218- Ibid., p. 10:6-7

219- Natural Resources Canada, The State of Canada’s Forests: The People’s Forest, 1997-98, p.22

220- Ibid., p. 25-27

221- Ibid. Note: (This reference reports a total direct and indirect employment for 1997 as 830,000, compared to 1,014 ,000 on Table 1)

222- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management in Canada Technical Report, 1997, p. 94

223- Price Waterhouse Coopers, The Forest Industry in Canada – 1997, p. 3-17

224- Natural Resources Canada (1997), Op. Cit.

225- Ibid.

226- Natural Resources Canada, (1997), Op. Cit.

227- D. Chown, Op. Cit., p. 6:29

228- Ibid.

229- M. Litchfield, General Manager, Forest Resources, E.B. Eddy Forest Products Ltd., Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest, of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 6, October 8, 1998, p. 6:34

230- W. Thornton, Op. Cit., p.7:29-30

231- National Forest Strategy 1998 -2003, Sustainable Forests – A Canadian Commitment, p.27

232- W. Thornton, Op. Cit., p. 7:30

233- D. Coon, Op. Cit., p.12:38

234- Industry Canada, website http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/fb00016e.html, April 1999

235- Ministère des resources naturelles, website http://www.mrn.gouv.qc.ca/forets_eng.asp, April 1999

236- Despite the importance of forestry in the province, British Columbia is not included in the present study since only a small part of its large forest industry is based on the boreal forest

237- Industry Canada, website http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/fb00015e.html, April 1999

238- Industry Canada, website http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/fb00005e.html, April 1999 (Saskatchewan and http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/fb00031e.html (Manitoba)

239- J. Carrier, President, L’association touristique de l’Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 8, October 27, 1998, p.8:12

240- R. DeBow, President, New Brunswick Wildlife Federation, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 12, November 4, 1998, p.12:5

241- J.Antler, Research Analyst, Northern Ontario Tourist Outfitters Association, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 7, October 9, 1998, p.7:15

242- Ibid. p.7:16

243- Government of the Yukon Territory, website http://yukonweb.com/government/tourism/tirc/value.html

244- World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development, Our Forests…Our Future, Summary of Draft Report prepared for Intergovernmental Forum on Forests, Geneva, 24 August – 4 September 1998, p.1

245- World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development, Our Forests…Our Future, April 1999, p.26

246- D. Bryant, D. Nielsen and L. Tangley, The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge, World Resources Institute, 1997, p.21

247- World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development (1999), Foreword

248- Denyse Rousseau, "Strategies at the National and International Levels for Sustainable Forest Management", The Forestry Chronicle, March-April 1998, Volume 74, No.2, p.220

249- G. Lochhead, Director, Office of Forestry and Environment, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Proceedings of the Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Issue 4, September 23, 1998, p. 4:5

250- Ibid.

251- Ibid.

252- Ibid.

253- J. Stevens and M. Tsigas, "Trade Implications of Timber Certification and Ecolabelling in the European Union," paper presented at the Forest Certification and Socioeconomic Indicators of Sustainability Workshop, 20-22 February, 1997, Alberta (As quoted in Canadian Public Policy, Special Issue on Forestry Issues in Canada, Volume XXIV, 1998, p. S84)

254- G. Lochhead, (1998) Op. Cit., p. 4:7

255- Canadian Sustainable Forestry Certification Coalition, Towards Sustainable Forest Management Certification with Canada’s National Sustainable Forest Management System Standards, August 1997, p.1

256- T. Rotherham, Op. Cit., p. 10:33-34

257- Canadian Sustainable Forestry Certification Coalition (1997), p.2

258- Forest Stewardship Council website, http://www.fscoax.org/html/who_we_are.html, April 6, 1999

259- Ibid.

260- "The Implementation of Forest Certification is Starting in Finland," Finnish Forest Certification Newsletter, No. 9, March 18, 1999, p.1

261- The Finnish Forest Industries Federation, "Finnish forest certification system – ready to launch", Forest Industries, January 1999, p.1

262- Anna-Leena Simula, MTK Forestry Group, "Pan-European Certification Scheme Had A Successful Steering Group Meeting in Oslo, 26-27 January 1999", Press Release, Helsinki, February 2, 1999, p. 2

263- The Finnish Forest Industries Federation, Op. Cit., p. 2

264- Sustainable Forestry and Certification Watch, website http://www.sfcw.org/keyactors.htm

265- Ibid.

266- CCFM, 1998, National Forest Strategy 1998-2003, Op. Cit., p. 1.

267- J.S. Rowe, 1992. ‘The ecosystem approach to forestland management’, Forestry Chronicle Volume 68: 222-224

268- E. Hanna and M. Martel, Practical Integration of Landscape Ecology Principles in an Operatonal Forest Management Plan, n.d., p. 9

269- Ibid., p.9

270- G. Niemi, J. Hanowski, P. Helle, R. Howe, M. Monkkonen, L. Venier and D. Welsh, 1998. Ecological sustainability of birds in boreal forest. Cons. Ecology (on line) 2 (2):17

271- J. Pastor, S. Light, L. Sovell, ‘Sustainability and resilience in boreal regions: sources and consequences of variability.’ Conservation Ecology (on line) 2(2) p. 16

272- M. Hummel (ed), Protecting Canada’s Endangered Spaces: An Owner’s Manual, 1995, p. xvi

273- J. Kimmins, ‘Sustainable development in Canadian Forestry in the face of changing paradigms.’ Timber Supply in Canada. Proceedings of Conference held November 16-18, 1994, p. 14

274- P. Demarsh, Op. Cit., p. 11:

275- P. Demarsh, Op. Cit., p. 11:


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